Ontology - multext-east

Abstract
OWL/DL Ontology for MULTEXT-East morphosyntactic specifications -- OLiA annotation model for the morphosyntactic specifications of MULTEXT-East v. 4. (Erjavec 2010)
http://nl.ijs.si/ME/owl/
Christian Chiarcos, 2010-2011

Licence:
The ontologies are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0) licence. You are free to to copy, distribute and transmit the work, to adapt the work and to make commercial use of the work under the condition that you make a reference to:
Christian Chiarcos and Tomaz Erjavec (2011), OWL/DL formalization of the MULTEXT-East morphosyntactic specifications. In: Proceedings of the 5th Linguistic Annotation Workshop (LAW-V), held in conjunction with the ACL-HLT 2011, June 2011, Portland, Oregon, USA, p. 11--20.
Please note that these ontologies are still under development, and that more detailed and precise definitions will be added incrementally.

Sources:
Unless marked otherwise, all comments refer to Erjavec (2010). Additionally, Qasemizadeh & Rahimi (2006), Dimitrova et al. (2009) and Derzhanski & Kotsyba (2009) were consulted for clarification. Email communication with Tomaž Erjavec, Serge Sharoff, Dan Tufis, Ivan A. Derzhanski, Natalia Kosyba, Csaba Oravecz and Hamidreza Kobdani represents the third source of information consulted for this ontology.
References:
Ivan Derzhanski, Natalia Kotsyba (2009), Towards a Consistent Morphological Tagset for Slavic Languages: Extending MULTEXT-East for Polish, Ukrainian and Belarusian, In: Proc. MONDILEX Third Open Workshop Bratislava, Slovakia, 15–16 April, 2009, p. 9-26
Ludmila Dimitrova, Radovan Garabík, Daniela Majchráková (2009), Comparing Bulgarian and Slovak Multext-East morphology tagset, In: Proceedings of MONDILEX Second Open Workshop, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2–4 February, 2009, p. 38-46
Tomaž Erjavec (ed., 2010), MULTEXT-East Morphosyntactic Specifications Version 4. 2010-05-12, http://nl.ijs.si/ME/V4/msd/html/index.html
Behrang Qasemizadeh and Saeed Rahimi (2006), Persian in MULTEXT-East Framework, in T. Salakoski et al. (eds.): FinTAL 2006, LNAI 4139, pp. 541 – 551, 2006.
Latest Version
http://purl.org/olia/mte/multext-east.owl#

Classes - Overview

G GerundProper Gerund Proper MorphologicalDerivation Morphological Derivation Collective Collective MorphologicalDerivation->Collective is a Diminuitive Diminuitive MorphologicalDerivation->Diminuitive is a MorphosyntacticFeature Morphosyntactic Feature Animacy Animacy MorphosyntacticFeature->Animacy is a Aspect Aspect MorphosyntacticFeature->Aspect is a WHType W H Type MorphosyntacticFeature->WHType is a Case Case MorphosyntacticFeature->Case is a Cliticness Cliticness MorphosyntacticFeature->Cliticness is a Courtesy Courtesy MorphosyntacticFeature->Courtesy is a Definiteness Definiteness MorphosyntacticFeature->Definiteness is a Degree Degree MorphosyntacticFeature->Degree is a Formation Formation MorphosyntacticFeature->Formation is a Gender Gender MorphosyntacticFeature->Gender is a Humanness Humanness MorphosyntacticFeature->Humanness is a ModificationType Modification Type MorphosyntacticFeature->ModificationType is a Negation Negation MorphosyntacticFeature->Negation is a Number Number MorphosyntacticFeature->Number is a NumeralAgreementClass Numeral Agreement Class MorphosyntacticFeature->NumeralAgreementClass is a NumeralForm Numeral Form MorphosyntacticFeature->NumeralForm is a Person Person MorphosyntacticFeature->Person is a PronounForm Pronoun Form MorphosyntacticFeature->PronounForm is a SyntacticType Syntactic Type MorphosyntacticFeature->SyntacticType is a Tense Tense MorphosyntacticFeature->Tense is a Transitivity Transitivity MorphosyntacticFeature->Transitivity is a VerbForm Verb Form MorphosyntacticFeature->VerbForm is a Voice Voice MorphosyntacticFeature->Voice is a owl_Thing Thing (owl) MorphosyntacticCategory Morphosyntactic Category owl_Thing->MorphosyntacticCategory is a Abbreviation Abbreviation AbessiveCase Abessive Case AblativeCase Ablative Case AccusativeCase Accusative Case ActiveVoice Active Voice AdessiveCase Adessive Case AditiveCase Aditive Case Adjectival Adjectival AttributivePronoun Attributive Pronoun Adjectival->AttributivePronoun is a AdjectivalAdverb Adjectival Adverb Adjective Adjective AdjectiveFormation Adjective Formation Adjective->AdjectiveFormation hasAdjectiveFormation GeneralAdjective General Adjective Adjective->GeneralAdjective is a IndefiniteAdjective Indefinite Adjective Adjective->IndefiniteAdjective is a AmbiguousAdjective Ambiguous Adjective Adjective->AmbiguousAdjective is a Participle Participle Adjective->Participle is a PossessiveAdjective Possessive Adjective Adjective->PossessiveAdjective is a CompoundAdjective Compound Adjective AdjectiveFormation->CompoundAdjective is a NominalAdjective Nominal Adjective AdjectiveFormation->NominalAdjective is a Adposition Adposition AdpositionFormation Adposition Formation Adposition->AdpositionFormation hasAdpositionFormation Postposition Postposition Adposition->Postposition is a Preposition Preposition Adposition->Preposition is a CompoundAdposition Compound Adposition AdpositionFormation->CompoundAdposition is a SimpleAdposition Simple Adposition AdpositionFormation->SimpleAdposition is a Adverb Adverb Adverb->AdjectivalAdverb is a CausalAdverb Causal Adverb Adverb->CausalAdverb is a GeneralAdverb General Adverb Adverb->GeneralAdverb is a InterrogativeOrRelativeAdverb Interrogative Or Relative Adverb Adverb->InterrogativeOrRelativeAdverb is a ModifierAdverb Modifier Adverb Adverb->ModifierAdverb is a NegativeAdverb Negative Adverb Adverb->NegativeAdverb is a ParticipleAdverb Participle Adverb Adverb->ParticipleAdverb is a ParticleAdverb Particle Adverb Adverb->ParticleAdverb is a PortmanteauAdverb Portmanteau Adverb Adverb->PortmanteauAdverb is a SpecifierAdverb Specifier Adverb Adverb->SpecifierAdverb is a VerbalAdverb Verbal Adverb Adverb->VerbalAdverb is a Adverbial Adverbial AffirmativeParticle Affirmative Particle AgglutinantClitic Agglutinant Clitic AllativeCase Allative Case AmbiguousCliticness Ambiguous Cliticness BoundClitic Bound Clitic AmbiguousCliticness->BoundClitic is a Clitic Clitic AmbiguousCliticness->Clitic is a NoClitic No Clitic AmbiguousCliticness->NoClitic is a AmbiguousDefinitenessFeature Ambiguous Definiteness Feature Definite Definite AmbiguousDefinitenessFeature->Definite is a FullArticle Full Article AmbiguousDefinitenessFeature->FullArticle is a Indefinite Indefinite AmbiguousDefinitenessFeature->Indefinite is a ShortArticle Short Article AmbiguousDefinitenessFeature->ShortArticle is a Animate Animate Animacy->Animate is a Inanimate Inanimate Animacy->Inanimate is a AoristTense Aorist Tense ApproximateNumeral Approximate Numeral Article Article DefiniteArticle Definite Article Article->DefiniteArticle is a DemonstrativeArticle Demonstrative Article Article->DemonstrativeArticle is a IndefiniteArticle Indefinite Article Article->IndefiniteArticle is a PossessiveArticle Possessive Article Article->PossessiveArticle is a Biaspectual Biaspectual Aspect->Biaspectual is a PerfectiveAspect Perfective Aspect Aspect->PerfectiveAspect is a ProgressiveAspect Progressive Aspect Aspect->ProgressiveAspect is a Question Question WHType->Question is a Relative Relative WHType->Relative is a AspectParticle Aspect Particle AuxiliaryVerb Auxiliary Verb BaseVerb Base Verb BothNumeral Both Numeral CardinalNumeral Cardinal Numeral Case->AbessiveCase is a Case->AblativeCase is a Case->AccusativeCase is a Case->AdessiveCase is a Case->AditiveCase is a Case->AllativeCase is a CausalisCase Causalis Case Case->CausalisCase is a ComitativeCase Comitative Case Case->ComitativeCase is a DativeCase Dative Case Case->DativeCase is a DelativeCase Delative Case Case->DelativeCase is a DirectCase Direct Case Case->DirectCase is a DistributiveCase Distributive Case Case->DistributiveCase is a ElativeCase Elative Case Case->ElativeCase is a EssiveCase Essive Case Case->EssiveCase is a EssiveFormalCase Essive Formal Case Case->EssiveFormalCase is a FactiveCase Factive Case Case->FactiveCase is a FormalCase Formal Case Case->FormalCase is a GenitiveCase Genitive Case Case->GenitiveCase is a IllativeCase Illative Case Case->IllativeCase is a InessiveCase Inessive Case Case->InessiveCase is a InstrumentalCase Instrumental Case Case->InstrumentalCase is a LocativeCase Locative Case Case->LocativeCase is a MultiplicativeCase Multiplicative Case Case->MultiplicativeCase is a NominativeCase Nominative Case Case->NominativeCase is a ObliqueCase Oblique Case Case->ObliqueCase is a PartitiveCase Partitive Case Case->PartitiveCase is a PrepositionalCase Prepositional Case Case->PrepositionalCase is a SociativeCase Sociative Case Case->SociativeCase is a SublativeCase Sublative Case Case->SublativeCase is a SuperessiveCase Superessive Case Case->SuperessiveCase is a TemporalisCase Temporalis Case Case->TemporalisCase is a TerminativeCase Terminative Case Case->TerminativeCase is a TranslativeCase Translative Case Case->TranslativeCase is a VocativeCase Vocative Case Case->VocativeCase is a CliticDefiniteDeterminer Clitic Definite Determiner CliticDistalDeterminer Clitic Distal Determiner CliticDefiniteDeterminer->CliticDistalDeterminer is a CliticProximalDeterminer Clitic Proximal Determiner CliticDefiniteDeterminer->CliticProximalDeterminer is a CliticDeterminerType Clitic Determiner Type CliticDeterminerType->CliticDefiniteDeterminer is a CliticIndefiniteDeterminer Clitic Indefinite Determiner CliticDeterminerType->CliticIndefiniteDeterminer is a CliticSpecificDeterminer Clitic Specific Determiner CliticDeterminerType->CliticSpecificDeterminer is a CliticElement Clitic Element CliticElement->AgglutinantClitic is a Cliticness->AmbiguousCliticness is a Cliticness->CliticElement is a Collocation Collocation Cliticness->Collocation is a ElementWithClitic Element With Clitic Cliticness->ElementWithClitic is a ElementWithoutClitic Element Without Clitic Cliticness->ElementWithoutClitic is a NoncliticElement Nonclitic Element Cliticness->NoncliticElement is a CollectiveNumber Collective Number CollectiveNumeral Collective Numeral PartOfFixedExpression Part Of Fixed Expression Collocation->PartOfFixedExpression is a CommonGender Common Gender CommonNoun Common Noun ComparativeDegree Comparative Degree ComparativeParticle Comparative Particle CompoundConjunction Compound Conjunction CompoundInterjection Compound Interjection CompoundParticle Compound Particle Conditional Conditional Conjunction Conjunction ConjunctionFormation Conjunction Formation Conjunction->ConjunctionFormation hasConjunctionFormation CoordinatingConjunction Coordinating Conjunction Conjunction->CoordinatingConjunction is a SubordinatingConjunction Subordinating Conjunction Conjunction->SubordinatingConjunction is a ConjunctionFormation->CompoundConjunction is a SimpleConjunction Simple Conjunction ConjunctionFormation->SimpleConjunction is a CoordinatingConjunction_ConjunctType Coordinating Conjunction_ Conjunct Type CoordinatingConjunction->CoordinatingConjunction_ConjunctType is a CoordinatingConjunction_PositionalType Coordinating Conjunction_ Positional Type CoordinatingConjunction->CoordinatingConjunction_PositionalType is a PortmanteauConjunction Portmanteau Conjunction CoordinatingConjunction->PortmanteauConjunction is a SentenceCoordinatingConjunction Sentence Coordinating Conjunction CoordinatingConjunction_ConjunctType->SentenceCoordinatingConjunction is a WordsCoordinatingConjunction Words Coordinating Conjunction CoordinatingConjunction_ConjunctType->WordsCoordinatingConjunction is a CorrelativeCoordinatingConjunction Correlative Coordinating Conjunction CoordinatingConjunction_PositionalType->CorrelativeCoordinatingConjunction is a InitialCoordinatingConjunction Initial Coordinating Conjunction CoordinatingConjunction_PositionalType->InitialCoordinatingConjunction is a NonInitialCoordinatingConjunction Non Initial Coordinating Conjunction CoordinatingConjunction_PositionalType->NonInitialCoordinatingConjunction is a RepetitiveCoordinatingConjunction Repetitive Coordinating Conjunction CoordinatingConjunction_PositionalType->RepetitiveCoordinatingConjunction is a SimpleCoordinatingConjunction Simple Coordinating Conjunction CoordinatingConjunction_PositionalType->SimpleCoordinatingConjunction is a CopulaVerb Copula Verb CountNumber Count Number WithCourtesy With Courtesy Courtesy->WithCourtesy is a WithoutCourtesy Without Courtesy Courtesy->WithoutCourtesy is a Definiteness->AmbiguousDefinitenessFeature is a Definiteness->CliticDeterminerType is a PersonOfObject Person Of Object Definiteness->PersonOfObject is a ReductionFeature Reduction Feature Definiteness->ReductionFeature is a Degree->ComparativeDegree is a ElativeDegree Elative Degree Degree->ElativeDegree is a PositiveDegree Positive Degree Degree->PositiveDegree is a SuperlativeDegree Superlative Degree Degree->SuperlativeDegree is a DemandingClitic Demanding Clitic DemonstrativeDeterminer Demonstrative Determiner DemonstrativePronoun Demonstrative Pronoun DemonstrativeQuantifier Demonstrative Quantifier DeterminalPronoun Determinal Pronoun Determiner Determiner Determiner->DemonstrativeDeterminer is a EmphaticDeterminer Emphatic Determiner Determiner->EmphaticDeterminer is a ExclamativeDeterminer Exclamative Determiner Determiner->ExclamativeDeterminer is a GeneralDeterminer General Determiner Determiner->GeneralDeterminer is a IndefiniteDeterminer Indefinite Determiner Determiner->IndefiniteDeterminer is a InterrogativeOrRelativeDeterminer Interrogative Or Relative Determiner Determiner->InterrogativeOrRelativeDeterminer is a Determiner->ModificationType hasModificationType NegativeDeterminer Negative Determiner Determiner->NegativeDeterminer is a PossessiveDeterminer Possessive Determiner Determiner->PossessiveDeterminer is a UniquitiveDeterminer Uniquitive Determiner Determiner->UniquitiveDeterminer is a DigitNumeral Digit Numeral DualNumber Dual Number DualQuantifier Dual Quantifier WithCliticS With Clitic S ElementWithClitic->WithCliticS is a ElementWithoutClitic->DemandingClitic is a WithoutCliticS Without Clitic S ElementWithoutClitic->WithoutCliticS is a EmphaticPronoun Emphatic Pronoun ExclamativePronoun Exclamative Pronoun ExistentialThere Existential There FeminineGender Feminine Gender FirstPerson First Person FirstSgSecondSg First Sg Second Sg Foreign Foreign Formation->AdjectiveFormation is a Formation->AdpositionFormation is a Formation->ConjunctionFormation is a InterjectionFormation Interjection Formation Formation->InterjectionFormation is a ParticleFormation Particle Formation Formation->ParticleFormation is a FractalNumeral Fractal Numeral FutureParticle Future Particle FutureTense Future Tense Gender->CommonGender is a Gender->FeminineGender is a MasculineGender Masculine Gender Gender->MasculineGender is a NeuterGender Neuter Gender Gender->NeuterGender is a RelationalAdjective Relational Adjective GeneralAdjective->RelationalAdjective is a QualificativeAdjective Qualificative Adjective GeneralAdjective->QualificativeAdjective is a GeneralParticle General Particle GeneralPronoun General Pronoun Gerund Gerund GerundOrAdverbialParticiple Gerund Or Adverbial Participle Transgressive Transgressive GerundOrAdverbialParticiple->Transgressive is a Human Human Humanness->Human is a NoHuman No Human Humanness->NoHuman is a Imperative Imperative ImperfectTense Imperfect Tense Impersonal Impersonal IndefinitePronoun Indefinite Pronoun IndefiniteQuantifier Indefinite Quantifier Indicative Indicative Infinitive Infinitive InfinitiveParticle Infinitive Particle Interjection Interjection Interjection->InterjectionFormation hasInterjectionFormation MoodInterjection Mood Interjection Interjection->MoodInterjection is a OtherInterjection Other Interjection Interjection->OtherInterjection is a InterjectionFormation->CompoundInterjection is a SimpleInterjection Simple Interjection InterjectionFormation->SimpleInterjection is a InterrogativeAdverb Interrogative Adverb InterrogativeDeterminer Interrogative Determiner InterrogativeOrRelativeAdverb->InterrogativeAdverb is a RelativeAdverb Relative Adverb InterrogativeOrRelativeAdverb->RelativeAdverb is a InterrogativeOrRelativeDeterminer->InterrogativeDeterminer is a RelativeDeterminer Relative Determiner InterrogativeOrRelativeDeterminer->RelativeDeterminer is a InterrogativeOrRelativePronoun Interrogative Or Relative Pronoun InterrogativePronoun Interrogative Pronoun InterrogativeOrRelativePronoun->InterrogativePronoun is a RelativePronoun Relative Pronoun InterrogativeOrRelativePronoun->RelativePronoun is a InterrogativeParticle Interrogative Particle Pronoun Pronoun Pronoun->AttributivePronoun is a Pronoun->DemonstrativePronoun is a Pronoun->DeterminalPronoun is a Pronoun->EmphaticPronoun is a Pronoun->ExclamativePronoun is a Pronoun->ExistentialThere is a Pronoun->GeneralPronoun is a Pronoun->IndefinitePronoun is a Pronoun->InterrogativeOrRelativePronoun is a ProQuantifier Pro Quantifier Pronoun->ProQuantifier is a NegativePronoun Negative Pronoun Pronoun->NegativePronoun is a NonspecificPronoun Nonspecific Pronoun Pronoun->NonspecificPronoun is a PersonalPronoun Personal Pronoun Pronoun->PersonalPronoun is a PossessivePronoun Possessive Pronoun Pronoun->PossessivePronoun is a Pronoun->PronounForm hasPronounForm ReciprocalPronoun Reciprocal Pronoun Pronoun->ReciprocalPronoun is a ReflexivePronoun Reflexive Pronoun Pronoun->ReflexivePronoun is a InterrogativeQuantifier Interrogative Quantifier ProQuantifier->DemonstrativeQuantifier is a ProQuantifier->IndefiniteQuantifier is a ProQuantifier->InterrogativeQuantifier is a RelativeQuantifier Relative Quantifier ProQuantifier->RelativeQuantifier is a Intransitive Intransitive LetterNumeral Letter Numeral LightVerb Light Verb MFormNumeral M Form Numeral MainVerb Main Verb MedialVoice Medial Voice ModalParticle Modal Particle ModalVerb Modal Verb PostnominalModification Postnominal Modification ModificationType->PostnominalModification is a PrenominalModification Prenominal Modification ModificationType->PrenominalModification is a MorphologicalFormOfNumeral Morphological Form Of Numeral MorphologicalFormOfNumeral->ApproximateNumeral is a MorphologicalFormOfNumeral->MFormNumeral is a MorphosyntacticCategory->MorphosyntacticFeature hasFeature MorphosyntacticCategory->Abbreviation is a MorphosyntacticCategory->Adjective is a MorphosyntacticCategory->Adposition is a MorphosyntacticCategory->Adverb is a MorphosyntacticCategory->Article is a MorphosyntacticCategory->Conjunction is a MorphosyntacticCategory->Determiner is a MorphosyntacticCategory->Interjection is a MorphosyntacticCategory->Pronoun is a Noun Noun MorphosyntacticCategory->Noun is a Particle Particle MorphosyntacticCategory->Particle is a Quantifier Quantifier MorphosyntacticCategory->Quantifier is a Residual Residual MorphosyntacticCategory->Residual is a Verb Verb MorphosyntacticCategory->Verb is a MultipleNumeral Multiple Numeral Negated Negated Negation->Negated is a NonNegated Non Negated Negation->NonNegated is a NegativeParticle Negative Particle NegativeSubordinatingConjunction Negative Subordinating Conjunction Nominal Nominal Noun->Case hasSubCase Noun->CommonNoun is a ProperNoun Proper Noun Noun->ProperNoun is a Number->CollectiveNumber is a Number->CountNumber is a Number->DualNumber is a PaucalNumber Paucal Number Number->PaucalNumber is a PluralNumber Plural Number Number->PluralNumber is a SingularNumber Singular Number Number->SingularNumber is a Numeral Numeral Numeral->CardinalNumeral is a Numeral->CollectiveNumeral is a Numeral->FractalNumeral is a Numeral->MultipleNumeral is a Numeral->NumeralForm hasNumeralForm OrdinalNumeral Ordinal Numeral Numeral->OrdinalNumeral is a Numeral->Quantifier hasQuantifier SpecialNumeral Special Numeral Numeral->SpecialNumeral is a NumeralAgreementClass->DualQuantifier is a PaucalQuantifier Paucal Quantifier NumeralAgreementClass->PaucalQuantifier is a PluralQuantifier Plural Quantifier NumeralAgreementClass->PluralQuantifier is a SingularQuantifier Singular Quantifier NumeralAgreementClass->SingularQuantifier is a NumeralForm->MorphologicalFormOfNumeral is a OrthographicalRepresentationOfNumeral Orthographical Representation Of Numeral NumeralForm->OrthographicalRepresentationOfNumeral is a NumeralThreeOrFour Numeral Three Or Four NumeralTwoToFour Numeral Two To Four OrdinalAdjective Ordinal Adjective AmbiguousAdjective->OrdinalAdjective is a PremodifyingOrdinalNumeral Premodifying Ordinal Numeral OrdinalNumeral->PremodifyingOrdinalNumeral is a OrthographicalRepresentationOfNumeral->BothNumeral is a OrthographicalRepresentationOfNumeral->DigitNumeral is a OrthographicalRepresentationOfNumeral->LetterNumeral is a RomanNumeral Roman Numeral OrthographicalRepresentationOfNumeral->RomanNumeral is a Participle->Transgressive is a Particle->AffirmativeParticle is a Particle->ComparativeParticle is a Particle->GeneralParticle is a Particle->InterrogativeParticle is a Particle->ModalParticle is a Particle->NegativeParticle is a Particle->ParticleFormation hasParticleFormation VerbalParticle Verbal Particle Particle->VerbalParticle is a ParticleFormation->CompoundParticle is a SimpleParticle Simple Particle ParticleFormation->SimpleParticle is a PassiveVoice Passive Voice PastTense Past Tense PaucalQuantifier->NumeralThreeOrFour is a PaucalQuantifier->NumeralTwoToFour is a Person->FirstPerson is a SecondPerson Second Person Person->SecondPerson is a ThirdPerson Third Person Person->ThirdPerson is a PersonOfObject->FirstSgSecondSg is a PluperfectTense Pluperfect Tense PositiveSubordinatingConjunction Positive Subordinating Conjunction PrenominalModification->PremodifyingOrdinalNumeral is a PresentTense Present Tense Program Program Pronominal Pronominal StrongPronoun Strong Pronoun PronounForm->StrongPronoun is a WeakPronoun Weak Pronoun PronounForm->WeakPronoun is a Quantifier->ProQuantifier is a Quantifier->Numeral is a Quantifier->NumeralAgreementClass is a Quotative Quotative Residual->Foreign is a Residual->Program is a Typo Typo Residual->Typo is a Subjunctive Subjunctive SubjunctiveParticle Subjunctive Particle SubordinatingConjunction->NegativeSubordinatingConjunction is a SubordinatingConjunction->PositiveSubordinatingConjunction is a Supine Supine SyntacticType->Adjectival is a SyntacticType->Adverbial is a SyntacticType->Nominal is a SyntacticType->Pronominal is a Verbal Verbal SyntacticType->Verbal is a Tense->AoristTense is a Tense->FutureTense is a Tense->ImperfectTense is a Tense->PastTense is a Tense->PluperfectTense is a Tense->PresentTense is a Transitive Transitive Transitivity->Intransitive is a Transitivity->Transitive is a Verb->AuxiliaryVerb is a Verb->BaseVerb is a Verb->CopulaVerb is a Verb->LightVerb is a Verb->MainVerb is a Verb->ModalVerb is a Verb->Transitivity hasTransitivity Verb->VerbForm hasVerbForm VerbForm->Conditional is a VerbForm->Gerund is a VerbForm->GerundOrAdverbialParticiple is a VerbForm->Imperative is a VerbForm->Impersonal is a VerbForm->Indicative is a VerbForm->Infinitive is a VerbForm->Participle is a VerbForm->Quotative is a VerbForm->Subjunctive is a VerbForm->Supine is a VerbalParticle->AspectParticle is a VerbalParticle->FutureParticle is a VerbalParticle->InfinitiveParticle is a VerbalParticle->SubjunctiveParticle is a Voice->ActiveVoice is a Voice->MedialVoice is a Voice->PassiveVoice is a

Properties - Overview

Classes

Abbreviation G Abbreviation Abbreviation
Abstract e.g., ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???? ????? (uk)
SubClass Of
AbessiveCase G AbessiveCase Abessive Case
Abstract Case="abessive" (Estonian)
SubClass Of
AblativeCase G AblativeCase Ablative Case
Abstract Case="ablative" (Estonian, Hungarian)
SubClass Of
AccusativeCase G AccusativeCase Accusative Case
Abstract e.g., -i/el, -l/el, -le/el, -ne/noi, -o/el, -te/tu, i-/el, l-/el, l/el (ro)
SubClass Of
ActiveVoice G ActiveVoice Active Voice
Abstract Voice="active"
Macedonian has two types of (adjectival) participles: active and passive. Active corresponds to Macedonian L-form and passive to verbal adjective, neuter gender, singular. For example, nosel is encoded as VForm=Participle, Voice=Active, nosen as VForm=participle, Voice=Passive. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
AdessiveCase G AdessiveCase Adessive Case
Abstract Case="adessive" (Estonian, Hungarian)
SubClass Of
AditiveCase G AditiveCase Aditive Case
Abstract Case="aditive" (Estonian)
SubClass Of
Adjectival G Adjectival Adjectival
Abstract Pronoun/Syntactic_Type="adjectival" (Slavic), Abbreviation/Syntactic_Type="adjectival"
Pronouns can be distinguished between having a (syntactically) nominal and (syntactically) adjectival function. All pronominal types except the demonstrative and possessive one can be nominal, and all except for the personal one can be adjectival. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
AdjectivalAdverb G AdjectivalAdverb Adjectival Adverb
Abstract Adverb/Type="adjectival" (Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian)
Bulgarian AdjectivalAdverbs have the same form as adjectives in Gender = neuter, Person = 3, Number = singular. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Adjective G Adjective Adjective AdjectiveFormation Adjective Formation Adjective->AdjectiveFormation hasAdjectiveFormation
Abstract For some MTE languages, Adjective also includes adjectival participles (Ukrainian), adverbs in certain positions (Macedonian mnogu, malku, nekolku are also considered adjectives in cases they are used before nouns, because they can have definiteness in their inflectional paradigm), and pronominal forms (Resian 'sw?j' / own is considered an adjective, not a pronoun).
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
AdjectiveFormation G AdjectiveFormation Adjective Formation
Abstract Adjective with feature "Formation"
The Formation attribute distinguishes a nominal (short) form from a so-called compound (long) form of an Adjective in Czech. The nominal form can be used in the predicative function only. It is specified for nominative and accusative Case only. (MTE v4) This corresponds to the use of Definiteness (i.e., ReductionFeature) for Polish.
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
Adposition G Adposition Adposition AdpositionFormation Adposition Formation Adposition->AdpositionFormation hasAdpositionFormation
Abstract e.g., a ??????????/=, ??? ???? ??????? ? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ?? ? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?????, ? ?? ????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???????, ? ?? ? ?? ????? ??? ? ?? ???, ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????, ? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????, ?? ?? ?? ??? ?-??? ?-?? ?-??? ?-???????? ?-??? ?-????? ?-??? ?-???????? ?-???? ?-????? ?-?????? ?-????? ?-????? ?-??????? ?-????? ?-??????? ?-?????? ?-?????, ?????? ?, ?? ????????? (uk)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
AdpositionFormation G AdpositionFormation Adposition Formation
Abstract Adposition/Formation Czech: A preposition can be contracted with a pronoun; such a preposition has Formation=c(ompound). (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
Adverb G Adverb Adverb
Abstract Adverb and Adjective overlap, and in MTE v4, different language-specific resolution strategies are applied: Polish post-prepositional adjectives like (po) polsku are treated as adverbs, Macedonian pre-nominal adverbs like mnogu, malku, nekolku are considered adjectives (like adjectives, they can have definiteness in their inflectional paradigm). Also, definitions for Adverb and Particle may overlap, see Adverb/Type="particle" as used for Hungarian and Romanian MTE v4. In Slovak MTE v4, however, Particles form a separate part of speech category as is customary in Slovak grammars. As for the overlap between Adverb and Conjunction, Adverb/Type="portmanteau" was introduced for Romanian to cover some few words which can be both adverbs and conjunctions (with adverbial reading more frequent). Romanian Conjunction/Type="portmanteau" applies only to the word "?i" which can be both a coordonating conjunction and an adverb. The distinctionamong these interpretations is rather tricky for the average native speaker and was a constant source of noise in automatic tagging. Therefore, for the sake of automatic processing we defined this "portmanteau" type value. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
Adverbial G Adverbial Adverbial
Abstract Pronoun/Syntactic_Type="adverbial" (Polish, Serbian, Russian, Ukrainian), Abbreviation/Syntactic_Type="adverbial"
SubClass Of
AffirmativeParticle G AffirmativeParticle Affirmative Particle
Abstract Particle/Type="affirmative"
SubClass Of
AgglutinantClitic G AgglutinantClitic Agglutinant Clitic
Abstract Clitic="agglutinant" (Verb, Pronoun: Polish)
Polish: The agglutination phenomenon in Polish is similar to Czech clitic_s for pronouns, but has a wider scope and can be found in more parts of speech. It is encoded as a more general "Clitic(y/n/a/d)" attribute and is specified, e.g., for the indicative VForm with Tense=pa(s)t, corresponding to "praet" flexeme in the IPIC to differentiate between forms like gni?t? (clitic="n") and gniot?- (clitic="d"), where the latter not only demands a clitic but also has different form. The value "(a)gglutinant" indicates the clitic itself, e.g., -em in gniot?em. Values "y" and "n" are left to enable showing that a graphical word, i.e., delimited by white spaces, is a combination of a (d)emanding (or free) segment and an (a)gglutinant in case the word segmentation should be revised in the future. Prepositionality is encoded as Clitic with values "y(es)" for ni?, niego etc., "n(o)" for j?, go etc., "a(gglutinant)" for -?. Cf. the Clitic value "bound" for Slovene pronouns like zate which refers to the whole cluster, formally a combination of a preposition and a pronoun. This coding can be used for similar phenomena in Polish, e.g dla? (for him), given the word segmentation is revised towards a more trraditional one.
SubClass Of
AllativeCase G AllativeCase Allative Case
Abstract Case="allative" (Estonian, Hungarian)
SubClass Of
AmbiguousAdjective G AmbiguousAdjective Ambiguous Adjective
Abstract Adjective subcategories that refer to different phenomena in different languages
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
AmbiguousCliticness G AmbiguousCliticness Ambiguous Cliticness
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
AmbiguousDefinitenessFeature G AmbiguousDefinitenessFeature Ambiguous Definiteness Feature
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
Animacy G Animacy Animacy
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
Animate G Animate Animate
Abstract Animate="yes" (Slavic Noun, Pronoun; Czech verb)
Slovak (like most other Slavic languages) distinguishes masculine animate (Animate="yes") and masculine inanimate (Animate="no") gender. Masculine inanimate nouns always have the same form in the nominative and accusative case, whereas masculine animate nouns have predominantly the same form in the genitive and accusative case. Masculine animate nouns and masculine inanimate nouns differ in accusative singular, nominative (vocative) and accusative plural only (Slovak MTE v4). In Resian, Animacy can also be marked on neuter singular accusative Nouns. The feminine declension masculine noun has only one Ncmsa, that is marked as animate: o?o / father is Ncmsa--y. (Resian MTE v4).
SubClass Of
AoristTense G AoristTense Aorist Tense
Abstract In Bulgarian, there is a language specific Tense="aorist" value for the Tense attribute. Past perfect tense ?aorist? expresses a past action (event) carried out or completed in a given moment or during a given period and finished before the state of speaking. (Dimitrova et al. 2009)
In Resian, the aorist is encountered sporadically in historical texts only. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
ApproximateNumeral G ApproximateNumeral Approximate Numeral
Abstract Bulgarian has Numeral/Form=approx(a), used for approximate numerals (???????? /about a ten/, ??????? /about a hundred/) (Dimitrova et al. 2009)
SubClass Of
Article G Article Article
Abstract Article and Determiner are independent top-level concepts that may, however, overlap for some languages: For Romanian, the distribition of articles is fixed, while for determiners is not. Also, the determiners are Person marked while the articles are not (Dan Tufis, email 2010/06/09). Determiner/Type="article" as used for Persian thus means that the token is in the intersection between Article and Determiner. In Persian, there are different types of determiners namely demonstrative, indefinite, interrogative, exclamative, and article. As defined here, there is just one article in Farsi; i.e, '?( '???yek). It is homonym with ?? ????which is a number. (Qasemizadeh and Rahimi 2006) The Persian article marks specificity rather than definiteness. (Ivan A. Derzhanski, email 2010/06/18) MTE distinguishes four subclasses of Article, fully instantiated for Romanian only. Unlike in most of the European languages, the article in Romanian has four types. Beside the types definite and indefinite which have the generally known semantic value, Romanian uses two additional types of articles, which are semantically subordinated to the definite article but which have special forms and meanings: (1) the possessive article (also called genitival article) is an element in the structure of the possessive pronoun, of the ordinal numeral (e.g. al meu (mine) and al treilea (the third)), and of the indefinite genitive forms of the nouns (e.g. capitol al c?r?ii (chapter of the book)). (2) the demonstrative article links a definite noun to its determinants, links a numeral or an adjective to a noun, and it is a constituent part of the relative superlative (e.g. fata cea mare (the elder girl), cel lenes, (the lazy), respectively prietenul cel mai bun (the best friend)). (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
Aspect G Aspect Aspect
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
AspectParticle G AspectParticle Aspect Particle
Abstract Particle/Type="aspect" (Romanian) A verbal particle with Particle/Type="aspect" modifies the verbs and carries information on the verb form, i.e., on its aspect (Dan Tufis, email 2010/06/09)
SubClass Of
AttributivePronoun G AttributivePronoun Attributive Pronoun
Abstract Pronoun/Referent_Type="attributive" (Bulgarian) and Pronoun/Syntactic_Type="adjectival" (other Slavic languages) are essentially the same thing (though in the Bulgarian tagset the value also contrasts with "possessive") (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/09)
SubClass Of
AuxiliaryVerb G AuxiliaryVerb Auxiliary Verb
Abstract Type="auxiliary"
In Persian, future tense is made by the help of Auxiliary verbs. In order to make progressive form in Farsi, verbs are inflected with the prefix '?( '???m?). Perfective forms of verbs are usually made using auxiliary verbs '? ?( '??? ????am, ast, ?). Passive form of the verbs in Farsi are made by the help of Auxiliary verbs. Passive form of the verb is made of Past Participle + Auxiliary verb '?( '?????odan). (Qasemizadeh and Rahimi 2006)
Note that the extension of AuxiliaryVerb may be defined differently. For many languages, AuxiliaryVerb does generally not include forms of "to be" (e.g., Czech b?t, Slovak by?, Macedonian bi), or modal verbs (e.g., Czech, Slovak, Macedonian). In other languages, however, verbs are classified according to their function rather than their form, e.g., Resian byt / to be can be main, copula or auxiliary. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
BaseVerb G BaseVerb Base Verb
Abstract Type="base" (English)
SubClass Of
Biaspectual G Biaspectual Biaspectual
Abstract Aspect="biaspectual" (Verb: Slovene, Russian, Ukranian; Adjective: Ukrainian), identified with Aspect="ambivalent" (Verb: Slovak) Every Russian verb form is either perfective or imperfective. This applies to the majority of Russian verbs, but there is a small number of biaspectual verbs. A biaspectual verb can either take a perfective or an imperfective value, depending on the context. Examples of biaspectual verbs are: ???????????? 'utilize', ??????? 'execute', ???????? 'get married'. (Feldman & Arshavskaya 2007) In the Slovak MTE v4, Aspect="ambivalent", presents a special class of verbs that have the same form in perfective and imperfective/progressive aspect (the difference is only semantic/syntactic, not morphological). (Dimitrova et al. 2009) Anna Feldman & Katya Arshavskaya (2007), English and Russian event annotation: A pilot study. Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 1, http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/journal/volumes/01/feldman_arshavskaya/
SubClass Of
BothNumeral G BothNumeral Both Numeral
Abstract Form="both" (Romanian) A combination of digit (or roman) and letter representation, cf. English "2nd".
SubClass Of
BoundClitic G BoundClitic Bound Clitic
Abstract Clitic="bound" (Slovene and Resian pronoun)
Clitic="bound" appears in Slovene and indicates in fact the whole cluster, e.g. "zame, pome", a combination of a preposition and a pronoun. So, ontologically, "bound" is rather ElementWith Clitic for Slovene. (Natalia Kotsyba, email 2010/06/21)
In Resian, however, "bound" seems to be a CliticElement. At least, the Resian MSD index lists for nas/m? both Clitic=bound (Pp1-pa--b-n) and Clitic=no (Pp1-pa--n-n). This is really a problem, because the only proper generalization over both uses would be to specify it as being ambiguous between CliticElement (for Resian) and ElementWithClitic (for Slovene).
SubClass Of
CardinalNumeral G CardinalNumeral Cardinal Numeral
Abstract Cardinal numerals signify a numerical (quantitative) property of objects, e.g., Sloval jeden dom, dve ?eny, tri knihy; Bulgarian ???? ???, ??? ????, ??? ????? /one home, two women, three books/. (Dimitrova et al. 2009)
Traditional Romanian grammars usually distinguish seven numeral types, where five of them have specific forms and the other two are obtained by composition. The first group is made up by the following numeral types: cardinal (trei-three), ordinal (al treilea-the third), fractional (treime-one third), multiple (?ntreit-trine), collective (am?ndoi-both). The second group contains the numeral types which are composed by means of other parts of speech: distributive (c?te trei-...each three...), adverbial (de trei ori-thrice) and again the collective numeral which also has compound forms (to?i trei-all three). Nonetheless, as the numerals of the second group have a weak syntactic cohesion, namely each composition element may be regarded as an element of the sentence, with its own grammatical function, these last numeral types are irrelevant for the morphosyntactic annotation. (Romanian MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Case G Case Case
Abstract feature of Noun (http://nl.ijs.si/ME/V4/msd/html/msd.N.html) and Verb (Russian and Estonian, http://nl.ijs.si/ME/V4/msd/html/msd.V.html)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
CausalAdverb G CausalAdverb Causal Adverb
Abstract Adverb/Type="causal" is used in the Hungarian MTE v4, but no examples are provided.
SubClass Of
CausalisCase G CausalisCase Causalis Case
Abstract Case="causalis" (Hungarian)
SubClass Of
Clitic G Clitic Clitic
Abstract Clitic="yes" (Noun/Adjective: Romanian; Verb: Romanian, Polish, Serbian, Persian)
Slovak Pronoun: Type=reflexive ecompasses all reflexive pronouns (sa, sebe, si, svoj, seba) as well as "sa" in its role as the obligatory particle of reflexive verbs. Personal and possessive reflexives are further distinguished via the Referent_Type attribute. "sa" in all its roles will be marked as the reflexive personal clitic pronoun. The Clitic attribute distinguishes clitical vs. nonclitical pronominal forms, e.g. "ti" vs. "tebe".
Polish Pronoun: Prepositionality is encoded as Clitic with values "y(es)" for ni?, niego etc., "n(o)" for j?, go etc., "a(gglutinant)" for -?. Cf. the Clitic value "bound" for Slovene pronouns like zate which refers to the whole cluster, formally a combination of a preposition and a pronoun. This coding can be used for similar phenomena in Polish, e.g dla? (for him), given the word segmentation is revised towards a more trraditional one.
Hungarian Adverb: The modifier -e question word (the only Hungarian clitic) is attached to the preceding word with a hyphen.
Romanian Verb, Noun, Adjective: The cliticization phenomenon in Romanian is not restricted to verb-pronoun relationship, but may also be observed with the (main) verb and the auxiliary, the noun or adjective with pronoun, with noun or adjective with copula, pronoun with auxiliary, preposition with (indefinite) article, numeral or (indefinite) pronoun, negative adverb with verb, auxiliary or pronoun, and some others (mainly created through the contracted forms of the verb "a fi"-to be). We restrict ourselves to considering only the graphically marked clicitizations. In such cases, the two, three or (sometimes) four constituents of a cliticized word-form are always separated by a hyphen. Omitting the hyphen in such cases is an unacceptable error in written Romanian.
Romanian Article: Note that the definite article has only enclitic forms, except for one proclitical form (lui + proper noun: lui Ion). The inflected forms of the foreign-origin words (mainly nouns) not fully assimilated, are usually written with a hyphen between the base-form and the inflectional ending. In our encoding, we classified these endings (which are supposed to be split by the segmenter) as clitic articles (clitic attribute is always "y") which can be either definite (type=f, "-istul") or indefinite (type=i, "ist") and are characterised by gender (gender=m, "ist"; gender=f, "ist?"), number (number=s, "ist"; number=p, "i?ti") and case (case=r, "istul"; case=o, "istului").
SubClass Of
CliticDefiniteDeterminer G CliticDefiniteDeterminer Clitic Definite Determiner
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
CliticDeterminerType G CliticDeterminerType Clitic Determiner Type
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
CliticDistalDeterminer G CliticDistalDeterminer Clitic Distal Determiner
Abstract Definiteness="distal" (Noun/Adjective/Pronoun: Macedonian) For Macedonian, the definiteness attributes can take the values: non definite (no), generally definite (yes), definite at short visible distance (proximal), and definite at longer visible distance (distal). (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
CliticElement G CliticElement Clitic Element
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
CliticIndefiniteDeterminer G CliticIndefiniteDeterminer Clitic Indefinite Determiner
SubClass Of
Cliticness G Cliticness Cliticness
Abstract feature "Clitic"
This is a highly feature used in different ways in different MTE tagsets. Therefore, no definition is attempted, but rather, different functions are represented in subconcepts. A proper ontological model would have to clarify the situation further. The attribute Clitic means either "hasClitic" (if applied to Noun) or "isClitic" (if applied to Article): This is similar to Case, which on Adpositions means "requiresCase" rathen than hasCase. Definitely something to think about; is it better to be formally correct or have small set of attributes? (Tomaz Erjavec, email 2010/06/09)
[Romanian] Clitic feature denotes: 1) a character ellision: i-am dat = ?i am dat (? is deleted) - I gave him 2) insertion: duc?ndu-m? = duc?nd+U+m? (U is inserted +for phonological reasons) - carrying myself 3) or both: m?nc?ndu-l = m?nc?nd+U+_e_l (U is inserted and e is deleted) - eating it 4) "fast speaking" that is pronuntiation of two words as if a single word: maic?-mea - my mother it is interesting to note that in "normal speaking" this would be "maica mea" where the word "maica" is in definite form while in the previous form was in indefinite form (notice the final ă) It is always signaled by a hyphen between the content word and the functional word that are cliticized. (Dan Tufis, email 2010/06/09)
Polish Pronoun: Prepositionality is encoded as Clitic with values "y(es)" for ni?, niego etc., "n(o)" for j?, go etc., "a(gglutinant)" for -?. Cf. the Clitic value "bound" for Slovene pronouns like zate which refers to the whole cluster, formally a combination of a preposition and a pronoun. This coding can be used for similar phenomena in Polish, e.g dla? (for him), given the word segmentation is revised towards a more trraditional one. (MTE, v4.0)
Czech Pronoun: The Clitic attribute distinguishes clitical vs. nonclitical pronominal forms, e.g. "ti" vs. "tob?". (MTE, v4.0)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
CliticProximalDeterminer G CliticProximalDeterminer Clitic Proximal Determiner
Abstract Definiteness="proximal" (Noun/Adjective/Pronoun Macedonian) For Macedonian, the definiteness attributes can take the values: non definite (no), generally definite (yes), definite at short visible distance (proximal), and definite at longer visible distance (distal). (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
CliticSpecificDeterminer G CliticSpecificDeterminer Clitic Specific Determiner
Abstract Persian does have an article, but it marks specificity rather than definiteness. The Persian article is similar to the Balkan one (a clitic of pronominal origin that's written together with the word), except that it isn't exactly definite (you can even see it described as an indefinite article). (Ivan A. Derzhanski, emails 2010/06/18)
SubClass Of
Collective G Collective Collective
Abstract Collective plurals are usually considered as derivation rather than an inflection, but modelled as a number feature in the MTE schema of Resian (Slovene dialect in Italy).
SubClass Of
CollectiveNumber G CollectiveNumber Collective Number
Abstract Collective plurals, though usually considered as derivation rather than an inflection, are modelled as a number feature in the MTE schema of Resian (Slovene dialect in Italy).
SubClass Of
CollectiveNumeral G CollectiveNumeral Collective Numeral
Abstract Numeral/Type="collect" (Romanian)
In traditional Romanian grammars, expressions like am?ndoi-both, to?i trei-all three are referred to as collective numerals. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Collocation G Collocation Collocation
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
ComitativeCase G ComitativeCase Comitative Case
Abstract Case="komitative" (Estonian)
SubClass Of
CommonGender G CommonGender Common Gender
Abstract The Gender value "common" is assigned to nouns that can combine with adjectives in either feminine or masculine,e.g., Ukrainian ?????? or either neutral or masculine gender, e.g. Ukrainian ?????. In Russian, Gender=common is used for words such as ?????, ???????, ?????, ????, ??????, etc. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
CommonNoun G CommonNoun Common Noun
Abstract Noun/Type=Common
SubClass Of
ComparativeDegree G ComparativeDegree Comparative Degree
Abstract e.g., ??????????/????????, ????????????/????????, ????????????/????????, ????????????/????????, ??????????/????????, ????????????/????????, ????????????/????????, ????????????/????????, ????????????/???????? (mk)
SubClass Of
ComparativeParticle G ComparativeParticle Comparative Particle
Abstract In the Bulgarian MTE v4 specs, Particle/Type="comparative" is used for particles used to create comparatives or superlatives (??, ???). In other Slavic languages, e.g., Slovak, comparatives are formed through a morphology suffix, naj- is written together with superlatives (although this could be considered just a difference in orthography), so that ComparativeParticle is applied to Bulgarian only. (Dimitrova et al. 2009)
SubClass Of
CompoundAdjective G CompoundAdjective Compound Adjective
Abstract Formation="compound" (Czech)
SubClass Of
CompoundAdposition G CompoundAdposition Compound Adposition
Abstract Adposition/Formation="compound"
In several languages, there is a distinct class of compound prepositions. Each of them forms a formal and semantic unit, although graphically they stay unfused, e.g. Romanian de la, pe la, de pe, etc., or Resian ta-na / in (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
CompoundConjunction G CompoundConjunction Compound Conjunction
Abstract Conjunction/Formation="compound"
In Romanian, CompoundConjunction refers to conjunctions formed periphrastically, with some word/phrase combined by a conjunction: din moment ce, f?r? s?, fat,? de cum etc. Also compare Resian za wojo ki / because. MTE v4)
SubClass Of
CompoundInterjection G CompoundInterjection Compound Interjection
Abstract Interjection/Formation="compound"
SubClass Of
CompoundParticle G CompoundParticle Compound Particle
Abstract Particle/Formation="compound"
SubClass Of
Conditional G Conditional Conditional
Abstract e.g., bude/by?, budem/by?, budeme/by?, budete/by?, bude?/by?, bud?/by?, by, neposta?ia/nesta?i?, neposta??/nesta?i? (sk)
SubClass Of
Conjunction G Conjunction Conjunction ConjunctionFormation Conjunction Formation Conjunction->ConjunctionFormation hasConjunctionFormation
Abstract e.g., as, either, neither (en)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
ConjunctionFormation G ConjunctionFormation Conjunction Formation
Abstract Conjunction/Formation refers to the graphical components: simple, i.e. consisting of one word; compound, i.e. consisting of more than one word. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
CoordinatingConjunction G CoordinatingConjunction Coordinating Conjunction
Abstract Conjunction/Type="coordinating"
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
CoordinatingConjunction_ConjunctType G CoordinatingConjunction_ConjunctType Coordinating Conjunction_ Conjunct Type
Abstract CoordinatingConjunction originally conflated two different classifications of conjunctions: (a) according to position and distribution (CoordinatingConjunction_PositionalType) (b) according to the elements conjoined (CoordinatingConjunction_ConjunctType).
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
CoordinatingConjunction_PositionalType G CoordinatingConjunction_PositionalType Coordinating Conjunction_ Positional Type
Abstract CoordinatingConjunction originally conflated two different classifications of conjunctions: (a) according to position and distribution (CoordinatingConjunction_PositionalType) (b) according to the elements conjoined (CoordinatingConjunction_ConjunctType).
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
CopulaVerb G CopulaVerb Copula Verb
Abstract Verb/Type="copula"
Depending on the language-specific classification of verbs in terms of their forms or functions, Verb/Type="copula" is either applied to forms of the verb "to be" in all its functions (e.g., Czech "b?t", Slovak "by?"), or restricted to occasions where it serves as a copula (e.g., Resian "byt"). (MTE v4) Copula verbs are inflected, so that the corresponding Macedonian word bi is considered as particle, rather than verb copula (in contrast to other copula it doesn't inflect for person / number) (Tomaz Erjavec, email 2010/06/09)
SubClass Of
CorrelativeCoordinatingConjunction G CorrelativeCoordinatingConjunction Correlative Coordinating Conjunction
Abstract Conjunction/Coord_Type="correlat" (Romanian). In Romanian, there are three kinds of conjunctions depending on their usage: as such or together with other conjunctions or adverbs: (1) simple, between conjuncts: Ion ori Maria (John or Mary); (2) repetitive, before each conjunct: fie Ion fie Maria fie... (either John or Mary or...) (3) correlative, before a conjoined phrase, it requires specific coordinators between conjuncts: at?t mama c?t ?i tata (both mother and father). (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
CountNumber G CountNumber Count Number
Abstract Number="count" (Nouns in Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian), e.g., Bulgarian ???/??, ???????/??????, ???/??, ??????/?????, ??????/??????, ?????/????
SubClass Of
Courtesy G Courtesy Courtesy
Abstract feature "Courtesy"
In Resian, the attribute Courtesy is relevant for the 2nd person plural, where forms in '-ta' refer to a plural subject and '-t?' to a singular subject. For Slovene this attribute is not used, even though the distinction is made in a similar manner. (MTE v4)
In Persian, instead of the singular form of the verb, the plural form is used to refer to a singular subject for reasons of couresy. In fact, such attributes for Farsi are not found in traditional grammar books. (Qasemizadeh and Rahimi 2006)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
DativeCase G DativeCase Dative Case
Abstract e.g., desater?m/desater?, devaten?ct?/devaten?ct?, devaten?ct?mu/devaten?ct?, devaten?ct?m/devaten?ct?, druh?/druh?, druh?mu/druh?, druh?m/druh?, dvoj?, dv?ma/dva (cs)
SubClass Of
Definite G Definite Definite
Abstract Definiteness="yes" (Noun/Adjective: Romanian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Persian; Verb: Bulgarian, Hungarian; Pronoun: Resian, Macedonian, Bulgarian)
In Romanian, nouns can be marked for definiteness with the enclitic definite article. In noun-adjective construction, the definite article may attach enclitically to either adjectives or modified nouns (never to both of them). If present, the definite article attaches to the right of the first word in the sequence, e.g. Bunul om (The kind man) v.s. Omul bun. (The kind man) (MTE v4)
For Macedonian, the definiteness attributes can take the values: non definite (no), generally definite (yes), definite at short visible distance (proximal), and definite at longer visible distance (distal). (MTE v4)
Persian does have an article, but it marks specificity rather than definiteness. (Ivan A. Derzhanski, email 2010/06/18) According to Qasemizadeh & Rahimi's (2006) description of tokenization, Definiteness of Nouns etc. thus refers to an orthographically non-separated definite (specifity-marking) article.
SubClass Of
DefiniteArticle G DefiniteArticle Definite Article
Abstract Article/Type="definite" is used in the Romanian, Hungarian and Resian MTE v4 specs.
Hungarian has tree articles: a, az and egy. a and az are definite. These may not have number and case. The word 'az' may have but that is a pronoun in those cases. (MTE v4)
The definite article in Resian is 'te ta t?' and formally distinct from the demonstrative pronoun from which it derived: 'jte jta jt?'. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Definiteness G Definiteness Definiteness
Abstract Like Cliticness, Definiteness assembles a number of *different* phenomena grouped together under a single MTE attribute. Definiteness refers to the definite and indefinite article in English, Bulgarian and Romanian, for the difference between long and short adjective inflection in other Slavic languages, for verbal agreement features of the Hungarian verb. Bulgarian Definiteness attribute: One of the most important grammatical characteristics of the new Bulgarian language which sets it apart from the rest of the Slavic languages is the existence of a definite article. The definite article is a morphological indicator of the grammatical category determination (definiteness). The definite article is not a particle (particles are a separate category of words ? parts-of-speech, while the article is not a separate word), nor is it a simple suffix, but a meaningful compound part of the word. It is a word-forming morpheme, which is placed at the end of words in order to express definiteness, familiarity, acquaintance (Bulgarian Grammar, 1993). In Bulgarian, nouns, adjectives, numerals, and full-forms of the possessive pronouns and participles can acquire an article. For the singular masculine article, there are two forms: a full article(f)[l.s.] and a short article(s)[l.s.]. The full article is used when a singular masculine form is the syntactic subject of the clause, otherwise a short one is used ? a purely orthographic rule. The distinction of full vs. short is not made for feminine, neuter and plural forms, and we use just the yes(y) or no(n) to mark definiteness or respectively lack thereof. Therefore, the definiteness attribute can take overall 4 different values: indefinite(n), definitive(y), short article(s), full article(f). (Dimitrova et al. 2009) In Polish, the vocalicity of (a)gglutinated forms like -em vs -m is mapped on the Definiteness attribute with its values "(f)ull-art" and "(s)hort-art" respectively, meaning "full form" and "short form". The IPIC flexeme winien and predicatives like rad are treated as short adjectives?Definiteness="short-art". The terms are very artificial, but this category is used due to the similarity of the phenomenon. (MTE v4)
One of MTE v.3?s most perplexing choices is that it uses the same binary feature Definiteness of the part of speech Verb to indicate, in Bulgarian, that a participle bears a definite article (?????????? ?the ones who talked?), and in Hungarian, that a finite form of a transitive verb has a definite 3rd person direct object (tanulom ?I learn it?). Thus two totally dissimilar (not to mention unrelated) phenomena are handled alike merely because their names in the respective grammatical traditions happen to mean the same. In MTE v.4 the tagset for Persian encodes izafet as Case=genitive (i.e., practically the opposite!) in an effort to avoid introducing a language-specific feature. (Derzhanski and Kotsyba 2009)
Hungarian Definiteness (of verbs): In simple terms, it means that the verb takes a definite object, which is reflected in the type of verb conjugation. Eg. in Hungarian there will be two forms of the verb 'see' here 1. I can see an elephant. 2. I can see the elephant. depending on the definiteness of the object, 'l?tok' vs. 'l?tom'. The above 1s2s form of verbs takes a 1st person singular subject and 2nd person definite object (which in actual fact can also be plural not only singular). Both subject and object can be (pro)dropped. Eg. I can see you -> (?n) l?tlak (t?ged/titeket) I see you_sg/you_pl (Csaba Oravecz, email 2010/06/15)
Persian: In Farsi, Nouns are inflected for number and Definiteness. ... Farsi adjectives are inflected for degree and definiteness. (Qasemizadeh and Rahimi 2006)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
Degree G Degree Degree
Abstract A feature of adjectives. In some languages, e.g., Hungarian and Slovak, also some adverbs may have degree. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
DelativeCase G DelativeCase Delative Case
Abstract Case="delative" (Hungarian)
SubClass Of
DemandingClitic G DemandingClitic Demanding Clitic
Abstract Clitic="demanding" (Verb: Polish)
An element that contains a clitic which is, however, represented as a separate token.
Polish: Particles were extracted from the IPIC particle-adverbs category manually along with adverbs, pronouns and interjections and a few conjunctions. The Clitic attribute enables differentiating particles that are agglutinated to non-particles (value= "a"), e.g., by, ?e. The value "y" labels a composite particle such as niechby when treated as one word; alternatively it may be encoded as a aequence of two particles, the optionally demanding niech with Clitic="d" and the agglutinant by with Clitic="a". (MTE v4)
This can be a subclass of ElementWithoutClitic. They are default though and won't be encoded in most cases. We only use them in some cases for Polish verbs. (Natalia Kotsyba, email 2010/06/21)
SubClass Of
DemonstrativeArticle G DemonstrativeArticle Demonstrative Article
Abstract The demonstrative article (Article/Type="demonstrative") in Romanian links a definite noun to its determinants, links a numeral or an adjective to a noun, and it is a constituent part of the relative superlative (e.g. fata cea mare (the elder girl), cel lenes, (the lazy), respectively prietenul cel mai bun (the best friend)). (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
DemonstrativeDeterminer G DemonstrativeDeterminer Demonstrative Determiner
Abstract Determiner/Type="demonstrative" (English, Romanian, Persian)
SubClass Of
DemonstrativePronoun G DemonstrativePronoun Demonstrative Pronoun
Abstract Pronoun/Type="demonstrative"
SubClass Of
DemonstrativeQuantifier G DemonstrativeQuantifier Demonstrative Quantifier
Abstract In the Czech and Slovak MTE v4 specs, Numeral/Class="demonstrative" are items meaning `this many/much', etc. Strictly speaking, they are pronumerals (pro-quantifiers), but traditional descriptions don't recognise such a category, so they are described variously as pronouns (because they contain a demonstrative element) or as numerals (because their syntactic distribution is that of numerals, or very close)." (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/11)
SubClass Of
DeterminalPronoun G DeterminalPronoun Determinal Pronoun
Abstract DeterminalPronoun refers to an Estonian intensifier that is formally identical with the reflexive pronoun. Thus, Pronoun/Type="determinal" in the Estonian MTE v4 specs is used for the emphatic/reflexive pronouns _ise_, _end(a)_ `(one)self'."
Note that DeterminalPronoun is not to be confused with English pronominal determiners (attributive pronouns). (Ivan A. Derzhanski, email 2010/06/15; Heiki-Jaan Kaalep, email 2010/06/21; G?lzow 2006, p.258)
Insa G?lzow (2006), The acquisition of intensifiers: Emphatic reflexives in English and German child language, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, p. 258
SubClass Of
Determiner G Determiner Determiner ModificationType Modification Type Determiner->ModificationType hasModificationType
Abstract e.g., ?????? ?????? ??, ????, ???/?? ?? ??/??, ?????? ??, ???????? ?????? ???, ?????/???? ???? ??????/??? (fa)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
DigitNumeral G DigitNumeral Digit Numeral
Abstract Form="digit"
SubClass Of
Diminuitive G Diminuitive Diminuitive
Abstract The value 'diminutive' for Degree is used in Resian only, for derivated adjectives that end with the suffix '-i?' (MTE v.4). In MTE, diminuitive was modelled as a feature of Degree. This is, however, misplaced, as there are languages where Degree and Diminuitivity are independent. In Latvian, for example, the diminutive suffix may be attached to an adjective, not only in the positive but in the comparative and superlative degrees (Ruke-Dravina 1953). DiminuitiveDegree was thus renamed to Diminuitive and removed from Degree. Velta Ruke-Dravina (1953), Adjectival Diminuitives in Latvian. The Slavonic and East European Review 31(77): 452-465
SubClass Of
DirectCase G DirectCase Direct Case
Abstract Case="direct" (Romanian)
In the Romanian case system the value 'direct' conflates 'nominative' and 'accusative'.
SubClass Of
DistributiveCase G DistributiveCase Distributive Case
Abstract Case="distributive" (Hungarian)
SubClass Of
DualNumber G DualNumber Dual Number
Abstract In Czech, the dual Number manifests itself in the instrumental Case of several Nouns denoting dual parts of the human body. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
DualQuantifier G DualQuantifier Dual Quantifier
Abstract Numeral/Class="definite2" (Czech)
Some feminine and neuter body parts in Czech have preserved dual forms, and if the noun is dual, so are its attributes (adjectives, pronouns). So the agreement of the numeral 2 differs formally from 3-4 (Ivan A. Derzhanski, email 2010/06/16)
SubClass Of
ElativeCase G ElativeCase Elative Case
Abstract Case="elative" (Estonian, Hungarian)
SubClass Of
ElativeDegree G ElativeDegree Elative Degree
Abstract Degree="elative" (Adjective: Resian, Serbian, Macedonian)
In Semitic languages, ElativeDegree refers to the ?adjective of superiority.? In some languages such as Arabic, the concepts of comparative and superlative degree of an adjective are merged into a single form, the elative. How this form is understood or translated depends upon context and definiteness. In the absence of comparison, the elative conveys the notion of ?greatest?, ?supreme.? The elative of ???? (kab?:r, "big") is ???? (??kbar, ?bigger/biggest?, ?greater/greatest?). (http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/elative) In Slavic languages, as well, it is pretty standard. I do agree with the definition though, that "the elative conveys the notion of ?greatest?, ?supreme.?" So, Slovene "lep" is beautiful, "prelep" is very (or supremely) beautiful; I guess the "pre-" prefix could be roughly translated as "over-". Used in Resian, Serbian, Macedonian. In Slovenian, we banished it, as even "ordinary" degrees are borderline inflection / derivation, but, I think, elative is is definitely not inflection. (Toma? Erjavec, email 2010/06/21)
SubClass Of
ElementWithClitic G ElementWithClitic Element With Clitic
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
ElementWithoutClitic G ElementWithoutClitic Element Without Clitic
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
EmphaticDeterminer G EmphaticDeterminer Emphatic Determiner
Abstract Determiner/Type="emphatic" (Romanian)
In Romanian, there are specific forms for the so-called emphatic determiner, which may accompany both a noun and a personal pronoun: fata ?ns??i (the girl herself), also ea ?ns??i (she herself).
SubClass Of
EmphaticPronoun G EmphaticPronoun Emphatic Pronoun
Abstract In the Ukrainian MTE v4 specs, Pronoun/Type="emphatic" is used for pronoun forms ??"????, ??"????, ??"???, ??"????, etc., with complex meanings like "there is nobody/nothing (to do sth/to use for doing sth, etc.)". Orthographically these are identical forms of negative nominal pronouns ?????, ???? "nobody, nothing" in oblique cases, however, with differing accent. They are referred to as either separate pronoun lexemes or predicatives in grammars. All Ukrainian emphatic pronoun forms include negation. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
EssiveCase G EssiveCase Essive Case
Abstract Case="essive" (Hungarian, Estonian)
In Estonian the essive case means such things as `(I played golf) as a student', `(I worked) as a bartender', `(you look) tired', `(he's very good) as a dancing partner', `(we parted) as friends'. This doesn't sound like the definition you quoted, but is similar (though not identical) to the meaning of the Hungarian form. (Ivan A. Derzhanski, email 2010/06/15)
Hungarian has two essive cases, essive-formalis (formatives, e.g., emberk?nt "as people") and essive-modalis (essivus-formalis, e.g., ember?l from ember "people") (Nose 2003, p. 108)
The essive-modal case in Hungarian language can express the state, capacity, task in which somebody is or which somebody has (Essive case, e.g. "as a reward", "for example"), or the manner in which an action is carried out, an event happens, or the language which somebody knows (Modal case, e.g. "sloppily", "unexpectedly", "speak German"). An example of this would be in the sentence "Besz?lek magyarul." (I speak Hungarian.) The sentence denotes the ability of being able to speak the Hungarian language. According to vowel harmony rules, ul becomes ?l in cases such as "Besz?lek n?met?l." (I speak German.) because the word for "German", n?met is composed completely of median and/or frontal vowels. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essive-modal_case)
SubClass Of
EssiveFormalCase G EssiveFormalCase Essive Formal Case
Abstract Case="essive-formal" (Hungarian)
e.g., Hungarian 'katonak?nt' -> [serves] as a soldier. (Csaba Oravecz, email 2010/06/15)
The Hungarian "formativus, or essivus-formalis `-k?nt' ... usually expresses a position, task and manner of the person or the thing." (Nose 2003)
"Haspelmath & Buchholz (1998:321) explained the function of the essive case as ``role phrases''. Role phrases represent the role of the function in which a participant appears. They regard the role phrases as adverbial." (Nose 2003, p. 117)
In the Hungarian language this case combines the Essive case and the Formal case, and it can express the position, task, state (e.g. "as a tourist"), or the manner (e.g. "like a hunted animal"). The status of the suffix -k?nt in the declension system is disputed for several reasons. First, in general, Hungarian case suffixes are absolute word-final, while -k?nt permits further suffixation by the locative suffix -i. Second, most Hungarian case endings participate in vowel harmony, while -k?nt does not. For these reasons, many modern analyses of the Hungarian case system, starting with L?szl? Antal's "A magyar esetrendszer" (1961) do not consider the essive/formal to be a case. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essive-formal_case)
cf. Masahiko Nose (2003), Adverbial Usage of the Hungarian Essive Case
SubClass Of
ExclamativeDeterminer G ExclamativeDeterminer Exclamative Determiner
Abstract Determiner/Type="exclamative" was introduced for Persian ?????? ??
SubClass Of
ExclamativePronoun G ExclamativePronoun Exclamative Pronoun
SubClass Of
ExistentialThere G ExistentialThere Existential There
Abstract English existential there is specified as a subtype of pronoun in MTE v4, i.e., Pronoun/Type="ex-there"
SubClass Of
FactiveCase G FactiveCase Factive Case
Abstract Case="factive" (Hungarian)
SubClass Of
FeminineGender G FeminineGender Feminine Gender
Abstract e.g., hentej/hent?, hentie/hent?, hentou/hent?, hent?, hent?/hent?, hent?ch/hent?, hent?m/hent?, hent?mi/hent?, ko?k?tiek/ko?k?tka (sk)
SubClass Of
FirstPerson G FirstPerson First Person
Abstract e.g., ??, ???/????, ????, ?????/????, ???/???, ?????/???, ??/??, ???/??, ????/?? (bg)
SubClass Of
FirstSgSecondSg G FirstSgSecondSg First Sg Second Sg
Abstract Definiteness="1s2s" (Verb: Hungarian)
Hungarian: 1s2s is a special form for definitness, in which the speaker's person is first singular (I) and the target of the transitivity is second singular (you). (MTE v4)
Hungarian Definiteness (of verbs): In simple terms, it means that the verb takes a definite object, which is reflected in the type of verb conjugation. Eg. in Hungarian there will be two forms of the verb 'see' here 1. I can see an elephant. 2. I can see the elephant. depending on the definiteness of the object, 'l?tok' vs. 'l?tom'. The above 1s2s form of verbs takes a 1st person singular subject and 2nd person definite object (which in actual fact can also be plural not only singular). Both subject and object can be (pro)dropped. Eg. I can see you -> (?n) l?tlak (t?ged/titeket) I see you_sg/you_pl (Csaba Oravecz, email 2010/06/15)
SubClass Of
Foreign G Foreign Foreign
Abstract In the Slovene MTE v4 specs, Residual/Type="foreign" marks a words in a strech of foreign language text. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
FormalCase G FormalCase Formal Case
Abstract (from the discussion of [Hungarian] EssiveFormalCase)
"`formal' in `essive-formal' is not an indication of register: there is another form, which in some descriptions is simply called `formal', with the affix _-k?pp(en)_ and a similar meaning (`in the form of ...', they probably meant when they came up with the term). The line between a case ending, an adverb formative and a postposition is a thin one in Hungarian." (Ivan A. Derzhanski, email 2010/06/15)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essive-formal_case (2010/06/15): "In the Hungarian language this case combines the Essive case and the Formal case, and it can express the position, task, state (e.g. "as a tourist"), or the manner (e.g. "like a hunted animal")."
SubClass Of
Formation G Formation Formation
Abstract Formation refers to the graphical components: simple, i.e. consisting of one word; compound, i.e. consisting of more than one word. (MTE v4 on Conjunction/Formation)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
FractalNumeral G FractalNumeral Fractal Numeral
Abstract Numeral/Form="fractional" (Romanian)
In traditional Romanian grammars, FractionalNumeral refers to expressions like treime-one third. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
FullArticle G FullArticle Full Article
Abstract Definiteness="full-art" (Noun: Bulgarian; Verb: Polish, Russian, Bulgarian; Adjective: Polish, Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian; Pronoun: Polish, Bulgarian)
In Bulgarian, the singular masculine article has two forms: a full article(f)[l.s.] and a short article(s)[l.s.]. The full article is used when a singular masculine form is the syntactic subject of the clause, otherwise a short one is used ? a purely orthographic rule. The distinction of full vs. short is not made for feminine, neuter and plural forms, and we use just the yes(y) or no(n) to mark definiteness or respectively lack thereof. Therefore, the definiteness attribute can take overall 4 different values: indefinite(n), definitive(y), short article(s), full article(f) e.g., ???, ????, ????? /a man, the man[short], the man [full]/ (Dimitrova et al. 2009)
For Polish, the Vocalicity of (a)gglutinated forms like -em vs -m is mapped on the Definiteness attribute with its values "(f)ull-art" and "(s)hort-art" respectively, meaning "full form" and "short form". The terms are very artificial, but this category is used due to the similarity of the phenomenon. The IPIC flexeme winien and predicatives like rad are thus treated as short adjectives?Definiteness="short-art". (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
FutureParticle G FutureParticle Future Particle
Abstract Particle/Type="future" (Romanian) A verbal particle with Particle/Type="future" modifies the verbs and carries the information that the verb is in future tense (Dan Tufis, email 2010/06/09)
SubClass Of
FutureTense G FutureTense Future Tense
Abstract Tense="future"
Czech/Slovak verbs normally form the future Tense periphrastically by auxiliary "b?t" (E. "to be") plus infinitive of the main Verb. In addition to the copula, there are, however, some Verbs which form future Tense non-periphrastically, i.e. synthetically (Verbs of motion). Such verbal forms are marked as Tense=f. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Gender G Gender Gender
Abstract Gender is reduced to the traditional set of "masculine, feminine, neutral" (and mergers between these). Animacy and Humanness that constitute subgenders of masculine accusative forms in Polish and other Slavic languages are represented as individual attributes. (Polish MTE v4) The Gender value "common" is assigned to nouns that can combine with adjectives in either feminine or masculine,e.g. Ukrainian ??????, or either neutral or masculine gender, e.g., Ukrainian ?????. (Ukrainian MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
GeneralAdjective G GeneralAdjective General Adjective
Abstract The Slovene MTE (v4), Adjective/Type="general" conflates qualificative adjectives and ordinal adjectives (distinguished in MTE v3). (Tomaz Erjavec, email 2010/06/09)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
GeneralAdverb G GeneralAdverb General Adverb
Abstract Adverbials can be sub-classified in different ways, Adverb/Type="general" refers to the prototypical case of adverbs per language. Its definition, however, depends on the respective (language-specific) taxonomy of adverbs. For example the distinction proposed for Romanian considers the principal syntactic properties of the adverbs. For Romanian, the general type includes most of the pronominal adverbs (demonstrative: aici (here), indefinite: oriunde (anywhere)). A distinct negative value is needed for adverbs as well (nic?ieri - nowhere, niciodat? - never). The particle type covers those adverbs which can dislocate verbal compound forms (ex. Ea a tot c?ntat -- She has ever sung) or mark degrees (ex. circa (about), foarte (very), prea (too)). Such adverbs are cam, mai, prea, ?i, tot, foarte etc. A useful distinction in Romanian considers the adverbs which can have predicative role, that is they can govern a subordinate sentence (ex. Fire?te c? o ?tiu -- Certainly I know it). Here (for uniformity within a multilingual environment), they are squeezed into the modifier class. No formal distinction is made between the interrogative adverbs and the relative ones. The "portmanteau" type of adverb was introduced to cover some few words which can be both adverbs and conjunctions (with adverbial reading more frequent). This was necessary for tagging purposes. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
GeneralDeterminer G GeneralDeterminer General Determiner
Abstract Determiner/Type="general" (English)
SubClass Of
GeneralParticle G GeneralParticle General Particle
Abstract In the Bulgarian MTE v4 specs, Particle/Type="general" is applied for non-specialised particles that do not fall in any of the other classes, i.e., negative, general, comparative, verbal, interrogative, or modal particle. (Dimitrova et al. 2009)
SubClass Of
GeneralPronoun G GeneralPronoun General Pronoun
Abstract Pronoun/Type="general" in English, and Slavic MTE v4 specs refers to pronouns not grouped together with any of the other subcategories of Pronoun defined for the respective language. In Slovak, for example, "general" pronouns concern the Pronouns like "v?etci" [E. "all"], "ka?d?" [E. "every"] etc.) (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
GenitiveCase G GenitiveCase Genitive Case
Abstract e.g., me/mina, meie/mina, meiegi/mina, minu/mina, minugi/mina, mu/mina, nende/tema, nendegi/tema, Pauluste/Paulus (et)
SubClass Of
Gerund G Gerund Gerund
Abstract "Gerund" as defined here is fully ambiguous
SubClass Of
GerundOrAdverbialParticiple G GerundOrAdverbialParticiple Gerund Or Adverbial Participle
Abstract The problem is that the English term _gerund_ is ambiguous: with respect to Latin, in whose grammatical tradition it originates, it refers to a deverbal noun, and is needed in this function for Polish as well; in descriptions of some other languages, however, it has been used for an adverbial participle. The two meanings have nothing in common, except that the English _ing_-form can translate both. (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/09)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
GerundProper G GerundProper Gerund Proper
Abstract The concept GerundProper is introduced here to refer to "gerund" in the sense of a deverbal noun. The term _gerund_, however, is ambiguous: with respect to Latin, in whose grammatical tradition it originates, it refers to a deverbal noun, and is needed in this function for Polish as well; in descriptions of some other languages, however, it has been used for an adverbial participle. The two meanings have nothing in common, except that the English _ing_-form can translate both. (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/09)
Polish proper gerunds (deverbal nouns) are encoded as common nouns. Since they are very frequent in Polish, it seems expedient to add a type for them, i.e., Noun/Type="gerund". (Derzhanski and Kotsyba 2009)
Human G Human Human
Abstract Human="yes"
SubClass Of
Humanness G Humanness Humanness
Abstract The attribute "Human" is added to express derogativity in Polish. The Polish derogatives are a class of plural forms of nouns which are [?Human] in the nominative but [+Human] in the accusative. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
IllativeCase G IllativeCase Illative Case
Abstract Case="illative" (Estonian, Hungarian)
SubClass Of
Imperative G Imperative Imperative
Abstract e.g., accompagnaimu/akompanj?t, amaite/am?t, contemplaimo/kontempl?t, D?ite/d?t, gauo/tet, gau?/tet, hovarnajte/govarn?t, hrishi/gri?it, lashi/l?gat (sl-rozaj)
SubClass Of
ImperfectTense G ImperfectTense Imperfect Tense
Abstract Tense="imperfect" (Romanian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Estonian)
SubClass Of
Impersonal G Impersonal Impersonal
Abstract VForm="impersonal" (Polish, Ukrainian)
In Ukrainian, the impersonal VForm (o) is characterized by the ending -??/-??. It exists in other Slavic languages as well, although in most of them it coincides with the neutral form of the passive adjectival participle and is classified as such. In Ukrainian, as well as in Polish, the attributive form is different from the predicative one, cf. in Ukrainian ?????? ??????? (a written rule) vs ?????? ??????? (a rule was/is written). (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Inanimate G Inanimate Inanimate
Abstract Animate="no" (Slavic Noun/Pronoun http://nl.ijs.si/ME/V4/msd/html/msd.N.html; Czech verb)
Slovak (like most other Slavic languages) distinguishes masculine animate (Animate="yes") and masculine inanimate (Animate="no") gender. Masculine inanimate nouns always have the same form in the nominative and accusative case, whereas masculine animate nouns have predominantly the same form in the genitive and accusative case. Masculine animate nouns and masculine inanimate nouns differ in accusative singular, nominative (vocative) and accusative plural only (Slovak MTE v4).
SubClass Of
Indefinite G Indefinite Indefinite
Abstract Definiteness="no" (Noun/Adjective: Romanian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Persian; Verb: Bulgarian, Hungarian; Pronoun: Resian, Macedonian, Bulgarian)
For Bulgarian, Romanian and Macedonian, Definiteness="no" marks the absence of the definite article at the element in the clause that is expected to carry it (usually the first word of an NP).
Also, Persian does have an article, but it marks specificity rather than definiteness. (Ivan A. Derzhanski, email 2010/06/18) According to Qasemizadeh & Rahimi's (2006) description of tokenization, Definiteness of Nouns etc. thus refers to an orthographically non-separated definite (specifity-marking) article.
SubClass Of
IndefiniteAdjective G IndefiniteAdjective Indefinite Adjective
SubClass Of
IndefiniteArticle G IndefiniteArticle Indefinite Article
Abstract Article/Type="indefinite" is used in the Romanian, Resian and Hungarian MTE v4 specs. Hungarian, for example, has tree articles: a, az and egy. egy is indefinite. These may not have number and case. In Resian, the indefinite pronoun is 'din na n?' and formally distinct from the numeral from which it derived: 'dyn dn? dn?'. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
IndefiniteDeterminer G IndefiniteDeterminer Indefinite Determiner
Abstract Determiner/Type="indefinite" (English, Romanian, Persian)
SubClass Of
IndefinitePronoun G IndefinitePronoun Indefinite Pronoun
Abstract Pronoun/Type="indefinite"
For some languages, IndefinitePronoun also covers negative pronous. In Romanian, however, it is worth differentiating the negative pronoun from other indefinite pronouns: a negative pronoun cannot be an argument for a verb unless the verb itself is negated too (e.g. Nu am v?zut pe nimeni / *Am v?zut pe nimeni). (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
IndefiniteQuantifier G IndefiniteQuantifier Indefinite Quantifier
SubClass Of
Indicative G Indicative Indicative
Abstract e.g., ?????/????, ?????/????, ??????/????, ??????/????, ????/????, ?????/????, ?????/??????, ?????/????, ??????/???? (ru)
SubClass Of
InessiveCase G InessiveCase Inessive Case
Abstract Case="inessive" (Hungarian, Estonian)
SubClass Of
Infinitive G Infinitive Infinitive
Abstract e.g., ??????????/= ??????????/?????????? ?????????/= ?????????/????????? ???????/= ???????/??????? ?????????/= ?????????/????????? ???????????/= ???????????/??????????? ????????????/= ????????????/???????????? ??????????????/= ??????????????/?????????????? ????????????/= ????????????/???????????? ?????????????/= ?????????????/????????????? ???????????/= ???????????/???????????, ???????????/= ???????????/??????????? ?????????/= ?????????/????????? ???????????/= ???????????/??????????? ??????????/= ??????????/?????????? ??????????/= ??????????/?????????? ??????????????/= ??????????????/?????????????? ????????????????/= ????????????????/???????????????? ???????????/= ???????????/??????????? ?????????????/= ?????????????/????????????? ????????????/= ????????????/????????????, ????????/= ????????/???????? ???????/= ???????/??????? ??????????/= ??????????/?????????? ??????/= ??????/?????? ?????????/= ?????????/????????? ???????????/= ???????????/??????????? ????????/= ????????/???????? ???????/= ???????/??????? ?????????/= ?????????/????????? ???????/= ???????/???????, ????/= ????/???? (uk)
SubClass Of
InfinitiveParticle G InfinitiveParticle Infinitive Particle
Abstract Particle/Type="infinitive" (Romanian) A verbal particle with Particle/Type="future" modifies the verbs and carries the information that the verb is infinite (Dan Tufis, email 2010/06/09)
SubClass Of
InitialCoordinatingConjunction G InitialCoordinatingConjunction Initial Coordinating Conjunction
Abstract In the English MTE v4 specs, Conjunction/Coord_Type="initial" designates the initial component of a complex conjunction consisting of multiple words (see CorrelativeCoordinatingConjunction), e.g., "neither" in "either ... or ..." and "either" in "neither ... nor ...".
SubClass Of
InstrumentalCase G InstrumentalCase Instrumental Case
Abstract e.g., ????/??, ????/??, ???????????/???????????, ?????/???, ????/??, ????/??, ?????/??????, ???/??, ?????/???? (ru)
SubClass Of
Interjection G Interjection Interjection InterjectionFormation Interjection Formation Interjection->InterjectionFormation hasInterjectionFormation
Abstract e.g., ach/ach, ho/ho, och/och (pl)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
InterjectionFormation G InterjectionFormation Interjection Formation
Abstract Interjection/Formation refers to the graphical components: simple, i.e. consisting of one word; compound, i.e. consisting of more than one word. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
InterrogativeAdverb G InterrogativeAdverb Interrogative Adverb
Abstract Adverb/Type="interrogative" is used in the Hungarian MTE v4 specs. Corresponds to Adverb/Wh_Type="question" in English MTE v4.
SubClass Of
InterrogativeDeterminer G InterrogativeDeterminer Interrogative Determiner
Abstract Determiner/Type="interrogative" (Persian MTE v4), corresponds to Determiner/Type="question" in English MTE v4.
SubClass Of
InterrogativeOrRelativeAdverb G InterrogativeOrRelativeAdverb Interrogative Or Relative Adverb
Abstract Adverb/Type="int-rel" for Romanian applies to interrogative and relative adverbs that are not formally distinguished in Romanian. (MTE v4) Corresponds to the presence of Adverb/Wh_Type in English MTE v4.
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
InterrogativeOrRelativeDeterminer G InterrogativeOrRelativeDeterminer Interrogative Or Relative Determiner
Abstract Determiner/Type="int-rel" (Romanian MTE v4), corresponds to the presence of Determiner/Wh_Type in English MTE v4.
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
InterrogativeOrRelativePronoun G InterrogativeOrRelativePronoun Interrogative Or Relative Pronoun
Abstract Pronoun/Type="int-rel" (Romanian), corresponds to the presence of Pronoun/Wh_Type in English (MTE v4).
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
InterrogativeParticle G InterrogativeParticle Interrogative Particle
Abstract Particle/Type="interrogative" (Croatian, Serbian, Bulgarian). In Bulgarian, this category is applied to particles used to form yes/no-questions or exclamations (??, ????, ????, ????, ?????) (Dimitrova et al. 2009)
SubClass Of
InterrogativePronoun G InterrogativePronoun Interrogative Pronoun
Abstract Pronoun/Wh_Type="question" (English MTE v4), Pronoun/Type="interrogative" (other languages).
SubClass Of
InterrogativeQuantifier G InterrogativeQuantifier Interrogative Quantifier
SubClass Of
Intransitive G Intransitive Intransitive
Abstract Transitive="no" (Persian)
SubClass Of
LetterNumeral G LetterNumeral Letter Numeral
Abstract Form="letter"
SubClass Of
LightVerb G LightVerb Light Verb
Abstract In linguistics, a light verb is a verb participating in complex predication that has little semantic content of its own, but provides through inflection some details on the event semantics, such as aspect, mood, or tense. The semantics of the compound, as well as its argument structure, are determined by the head or primary component of the compound, which may be a verb or noun (V+V or V+N compounds). Other names for "light verb" include: vector verb or explicator verb, emphasising its role within the compound; or thin verb or semantically weak verb, emphasising (as with "light") its lack of semantics. A "semantically weak" verb is not to be confused with a "weak verb" as in the Germanic weak inflection. Light verbs are similar to auxiliary verbs in some ways. Most English light verbs occur in V+N forms sometimes called "stretched verbs": for example, take in take a nap, where the primary sense is provided by "nap", and "take" is the light verb. The light verbs most common in these constructions are also common in phrasal verbs. A verb which is "light" in one context may be "heavy" in another: as with "take" in I will take a book to read. Examples in other languages include the Yiddish geb in geb a helf (literally give a help, "help"); the French faire in faire semblant (lit. make seeming, "pretend"); the Hindi nikal paRA (lit. leave fall, "start to leave"); and the b? construction in Chinese.[1] Some verbs are found in many such expressions; to reuse an earlier example, take is found in take a nap, take a shower, take a sip, take a bow, take turns, and so on. Light verbs are extremely common in Indo-Iranian languages, Japanese, and other languages in which verb compounding is a primary mechanism for marking aspectual distinctions. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_verb)
SubClass Of
LocativeCase G LocativeCase Locative Case
Abstract e.g., belim/beo, Bratstvu/Bratstvo, dvojim/dvoje, Hajd, jednoj/jedan, jednom/jedan, jednome/jedan, jednomu/jedan, Jevrejkama/Jevrejka (sr)
SubClass Of
MainVerb G MainVerb Main Verb
Abstract Type="main"
Depending to tagging strategy (see AuxiliaryVerb), MainVerb refers to lexical verbs that have neither auxiliary, nor modal, nor copular function, or it refers to verbs other than "to be", "to have", etc.
SubClass Of
MasculineGender G MasculineGender Masculine Gender
Abstract e.g., Hrvatoma/Hrvat, katerih/kateri, katerim/kateri, katerimi/kateri, pilatusema/pilatus, tistih/tisti, treh/trije, trem/trije, tremi/trije (sl)
SubClass Of
MedialVoice G MedialVoice Medial Voice
Abstract Voice="medial" (Russian), e.g., ?????????/???????, ???????????/?????????, ???????????/?????????
SubClass Of
MFormNumeral G MFormNumeral M Form Numeral
Abstract The Bulgarian MTE v4 specs have an additional subtype of Numeral, Numeral/Form=m_form. This signifies a special form of cardinal numbers for persons of masculine gender for `two', `three', `four', `five' and `six', formed with suffix -(?)??: ?????, ?????, ?????? /two(people), three(people), five(people)/ (Dimitrova et al. 2009; Earl 2000, p. 153). They go beyond six, though the higher the number, the less natural they sound. `Seven Brides for Seven Brothers' is _Sedem nevesti za sedmina bratja_, always. Otoh, _The Seven Samurai_ is _Sedemte samurai_, not _Sedminata samurai_. It's a stylistic choice. (Ivan A Derzhanski, email 2010/06/20)
Lily Earl (2000), A comprehensive Bulgarian grammar for foreign learners, Daniela Ubenova, Sofia
SubClass Of
ModalParticle G ModalParticle Modal Particle
Abstract Particle/Type="modal" (Croatian, Serbian, Bulgarian). In the Bulgarian MTE, Type=modal refers to particles that express urge or order, mostly homonymous with other types of particles, for instance ??, ????, ????, ?????. (Dimitrova et al. 2009)
SubClass Of
ModalVerb G ModalVerb Modal Verb
Abstract Type="modal"
Persian Modal verbs change the aspect of verbs to Subjunctive. Usually they come before Main verbs in present subjunctive form so the Main verb will have normal inflectional attributes. But if the Main verb appears in past 3rd person form, then the construction will be impersonal. Modal verbs usually are not inflected by number and person. However, there is an exception for the verb '?( '????????tav?nestan) that can be inflected for person and number. (Qasemizadeh and Saeed Rahimi 2006)
SubClass Of
ModificationType G ModificationType Modification Type
Abstract Determiner/Modific_Type refers to the prenominal or postnominal positions of Determiners which distinguish different forms in Romanian. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
ModifierAdverb G ModifierAdverb Modifier Adverb
Abstract Adverb/Type="modifier" is used in the English, Romanian and Hungarian MTE v4 specs. For Romanian, Adverb/Type="modifier" applies to adverbs which can have predicative role, that is they can govern a subordinate sentence (ex. Fire?te c? o ?tiu -- Certainly I know it). Here (for uniformity within a multilingual environment), they are squeezed into the modifier class. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
MoodInterjection G MoodInterjection Mood Interjection
Abstract Interjection/Type="mood" (Hungarian)
SubClass Of
MorphologicalDerivation G MorphologicalDerivation Morphological Derivation
Sub-Classes
MorphologicalFormOfNumeral G MorphologicalFormOfNumeral Morphological Form Of Numeral
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
MorphosyntacticCategory G MorphosyntacticCategory Morphosyntactic Category MorphosyntacticFeature Morphosyntactic Feature MorphosyntacticCategory->MorphosyntacticFeature hasFeature
Abstract Top-level categories as specified under http://nl.ijs.si/ME/V4/msd/html/msd.cats.html. Subordinate categories reflect "Type" and related attributes.
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
MorphosyntacticFeature G MorphosyntacticFeature Morphosyntactic Feature
Abstract Morphosyntactic features as specified under http://nl.ijs.si/ME/V4/msd/html. Note that attribute like "type" are represented as subcategories of MorphosyntacticCategory, cf. remarks there.
Sub-Classes
MultipleNumeral G MultipleNumeral Multiple Numeral
Abstract A Multiple Numeral serves to define a complex whole, with respect to the number of its parts. In English, a Multiple Numeral is formed by adding the syllable "-fold" to the stem of a numeral. (Joseph Ghostwick [1878], English language -- Grammar, Historical, London, Longmans, Green, and Co., http://www.archive.org/details/englishgrammarhi00gostrich)
SubClass Of
MultiplicativeCase G MultiplicativeCase Multiplicative Case
Abstract Case="multiplicative" (Hungarian)
SubClass Of
Negated G Negated Negated
Abstract Negation="yes"
Negative="yes" encodes negative verbal word-forms in Slavic languages and Estonian. (MTE v4) In Slovak, for example, verbs form negative by prefix 'ne-', with the exception of the verb "by?" (E. "to be") which forms the negative in indicative by using separate particle "nie", e.g. "nie je" (is not). Here, Slovak "je" would be marked as negative, despite having positive form. In Resian, negative is always marked as 'n' except for two verbs: 'n?man' / not to have, 'n?si' / not to be. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Negation G Negation Negation
Abstract Negative="yes" encodes negative verbal word-forms in Slavic languages and Estonian. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
NegativeAdverb G NegativeAdverb Negative Adverb
Abstract Adverb/Type="negative" are used in the Serbian and Romanian MTE v4 specs, e.g., for Romanian nic?ieri - nowhere, niciodat? - never. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
NegativeDeterminer G NegativeDeterminer Negative Determiner
Abstract Determiner/Type="negative" (Romanian)
In Romanian the negative determiner is expressed by the unit nici + indefinite article (e.g. nici un, nici o). (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
NegativeParticle G NegativeParticle Negative Particle
Abstract e.g., ??, ???? (bg)
SubClass Of
NegativePronoun G NegativePronoun Negative Pronoun
Abstract Pronoun/Type="negative" (Romanian, Slavic)
Overlap with EmphaticPronoun: In the Ukrainian MTE v4 specs, the emphatic Type of Pronoun is used for pronoun forms ??"????, ??"????, ??"???, ??"????, etc., with complex meanings like "there is nobody/nothing (to do sth/to use for doing sth, etc.)". Orthographically these are identical forms of negative nominal pronouns ?????, ???? "nobody, nothing" in oblique cases, however, with differing accent. They are referred to as either separate pronoun lexemes or predicatives in grammars. All Ukrainian emphatic pronoun forms include negation.
Overlap with IndefinitePronoun: In Romanian it is worth differentiating the negative pronoun from other indefinite pronouns: a negative pronoun cannot be an argument for a verb unless the verb itself is negated too (e.g. Nu am v?zut pe nimeni / *Am v?zut pe nimeni).
SubClass Of
NegativeSubordinatingConjunction G NegativeSubordinatingConjunction Negative Subordinating Conjunction
Abstract Conjunction/Sub_Type="negative" (Romanian, Serbian, Russian) In Romanian, each conjunction requires another mood, so that the diversity may be controlled by subcategorisation rules. The attribute Sub_Type distinguishes among the positive and negative conjunctions, providing means to control verbal double negation, (as in case of the negative pronouns, determiners and adverbs): nici NU am venit, nimeni NU vorbe?te, nici_un tren N-a trecut, nic?ieri N-am v?zut (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
NeuterGender G NeuterGender Neuter Gender
Abstract In Romanian the declension of a neuter noun always follows in singular a masculine paradigm and in plural a feminine one. Specific implementations could take advantage of this rule and by organizing the paradigmatic space in partial paradigms (masc-sing, masc-pl, fem-sing, fem-pl) to get rid of neuter value for the gender attribute. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
NoClitic G NoClitic No Clitic
Abstract Clitic="no" (Noun/Adjective: Romanian; Verb: Romanian, Polish, Serbian, Persian)
Slovak Pronoun: The Clitic attribute distinguishes clitical vs. nonclitical pronominal forms, e.g. "ti" vs. "tebe".
Romanian Verb, Noun, Adjective: The cliticization phenomenon in Romanian is not restricted to verb-pronoun relationship, but may also be observed with the (main) verb and the auxiliary, the noun or adjective with pronoun, with noun or adjective with copula, pronoun with auxiliary, preposition with (indefinite) article, numeral or (indefinite) pronoun, negative adverb with verb, auxiliary or pronoun, and some others (mainly created through the contracted forms of the verb "a fi"-to be). We restrict ourselves to considering only the graphically marked clicitizations. In such cases, the two, three or (sometimes) four constituents of a cliticized word-form are always separated by a hyphen. Omitting the hyphen in such cases is an unacceptable error in written Romanian.
Romanian Article: Note that the definite article has only enclitic forms, except for one proclitical form (lui + proper noun: lui Ion). The inflected forms of the foreign-origin words (mainly nouns) not fully assimilated, are usually written with a hyphen between the base-form and the inflectional ending. In our encoding, we classified these endings (which are supposed to be split by the segmenter) as clitic articles (clitic attribute is always "y") which can be either definite (type=f, "-istul") or indefinite (type=i, "ist") and are characterised by gender (gender=m, "ist"; gender=f, "ist?"), number (number=s, "ist"; number=p, "i?ti") and case (case=r, "istul"; case=o, "istului").
SubClass Of
NoHuman G NoHuman No Human
Abstract Human="no"
SubClass Of
Nominal G Nominal Nominal
Abstract Pronoun/Syntactic_Type="nominal" (Slavic), Abbreviation/Syntactic_Type="nominal"
Slovak Pronoun: Pronouns are distinguished between having a (syntactically) nominal and (syntactically) adjectival function. All pronominal types except the demonstrative and possessive one can be nominal, and all except for the personal one can be adjectival.
SubClass Of
NominalAdjective G NominalAdjective Nominal Adjective
Abstract Formation="nominal" (Czech)
SubClass Of
NominativeCase G NominativeCase Nominative Case
Abstract e.g., eu, tu (ro)
SubClass Of
NoncliticElement G NoncliticElement Nonclitic Element
SubClass Of
NonInitialCoordinatingConjunction G NonInitialCoordinatingConjunction Non Initial Coordinating Conjunction
Abstract In the English MTE v4 specs, Conjunction/Coord_Type="non-initial" designates coordinating conjunctions that are no InitialCoordinatingConjunction, i.e., the second element of a complex conjunction consisting of multiple words (see CorrelativeCoordinatingConjunction), e.g., "or" in "either ... or ..." and "nor" in "neither ... nor ...", but also single-word conjunctions such as "than", "but", and "and".
SubClass Of
NonNegated G NonNegated Non Negated
Abstract Negation="no"
Non-negated verbs carry no morphological marks of negation. In Resian, negative is always marked as 'no' except for two verbs: 'n?man' / not to have, 'n?si' / not to be. In Slovak, verbs form negative by prefix 'ne-', with the exception of the verb "by?" (E. "to be") which forms the negative in indicative by using separate particle "nie", e.g. "nie je" (is not). Here, "je" would be marked as negative, despite having positive form. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
NonspecificPronoun G NonspecificPronoun Nonspecific Pronoun
Abstract In the Russian MTE v4 specs, Pronoun/Type="nonspecific" marks the following Russian words: ???? 'all', ?????? 'any, every', ??? 'oneself', ????? 'the very', ?????? 'every, each', ???? 'other', ????? 'any', ?????? 'other'. The name "nonspecific" follows Halliday (1985, Section 6.2.1.1). (MTE v4) A nonspecific pronoun refers to an unidentified or general entity (e.g., "I saw *someone*", "I saw *everyone*"). A nonspecific pronoun is not, therefore, a personal pronoun, but an indefinite one. (Andrews 2003). Andrews, Richard J. (2003), Introduction to Classical Nahuatl. University of Oklahoma Press. Halliday, M.A.K. (1985), An introduction to Functional Grammar, London: Edward Arnold
SubClass Of
Noun G Noun Noun Case Case Noun->Case hasSubCase
Abstract Nouns are characterized by features such as gender and number (for all MTE v4 languages, http://nl.ijs.si/ME/V4/msd/html/msd.N.html)
As for the overlap between Noun and Adjective, Slovak adjectival nouns (gazdin?, hostinsk?) are classified as nouns. Sometimes the distinction between noun and adjective is not as clear as we want (obchodn? cestuj?ci). (MTE v4)
As for the overlap between Noun and Verb, Ukrainian gerunds are not differentiated, but could be treated as a special class of nouns, nota bene: they possess aspect. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
Number G Number Number
Abstract Hungarian has three types of number in the nominal inflection: 1. The number of the noun. 2. The number of owners that own the noun. 3. The number of the context given referent, which is some possession of the noun, i.e. belongs to the noun (anaphoric possessive). (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
Numeral G Numeral Numeral NumeralForm Numeral Form Numeral->NumeralForm hasNumeralForm Quantifier Quantifier Numeral->Quantifier hasQuantifier
Abstract In Romanian (as in many other languages) several numerals have noun behaviour (some grammarians classify such numerals as nouns) with gender and declension of their own, which they preserve even in the composition of the superior order numerals; these are, for instance, sut? (hundred), mie (thousand), milion (million) and miliard (billion). In a sentence most numerals may fulfill the function of other parts of speech like noun, determiner or adverb. (Romanian MTE v.4)
In some languages, a division of numerals according to their nominal, adjectival or adverbial function is, however, not usual, and numerals have not been subsumed under adjectives, pronouns, determiners, etc. because the internal structure of complex numerals is idiosyncratic and because of their specific syntactic distribution. (Resian, English, Czech, MTE v.4).
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
NumeralAgreementClass G NumeralAgreementClass Numeral Agreement Class
Abstract In most Slavic languages, Numerals and Quantifiers involve specific agreement patterns, e.g., in Russian:
(b) PaucalQuantifier (MTE v4: Numeral/Class="definite234"): requires noun in genitive singular, e.g., ???/???/?????? ???? "two/three/four years" (c) PluralQuantifier (MTE v4: Numeral/Class="definite"):requires noun in genitive plural, e.g., ????/?????/???????/??????? ??? "five/many/how many/that many years"
Bulgarian has done away with the distinction between 4 and 5, and generalised the 2-4 form to all numerals (and some other quantifiers), but the others generally keep it. Also Slovene has a living dual (both Sorbians likewise, but they haven't been MTEd).
Some Czech feminine and neuter body parts have preserved dual forms, and if the noun is dual, so are its attributes (adjectives, pronouns). So 2 differs formally from 3-4. The corresponding agreement pattern is a DualQuantifier (MTE v4: Numeral/Class="definite2"). (Ivan A. Derzhanski & Christian Chiarcos)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
NumeralForm G NumeralForm Numeral Form
Abstract NumeralForm conflates two different aspects that are made explicit here: - OrthographicRepresentationOfNumeral: the orthographical representation of Numerals, and - MorphologicalFormOfNumeral: morphological subclasses of Numeral as defined by their derivational morphology
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
NumeralThreeOrFour G NumeralThreeOrFour Numeral Three Or Four
Abstract Numeral/Class="definite34" (Polish, Czech). Agreement pattern as prototypically manifested for numerals "three" and "four" (in Czech and Polish).
SubClass Of
NumeralTwoToFour G NumeralTwoToFour Numeral Two To Four
Abstract Numeral/Class="definite234" (Slovak)
Agreement pattern as prototypically manifested for the numerals two to four.
SubClass Of
ObliqueCase G ObliqueCase Oblique Case
Abstract Case="oblique" (Romanian, Macedonian)
In the Romanian case system the value 'oblique' conflates 'genitive' and 'dative'. In the Macedonian case system the value 'oblique' conflates archaic forms of 'genitive', 'dative' and 'accusative'.
SubClass Of
OrdinalAdjective G OrdinalAdjective Ordinal Adjective
Abstract "Ordinal adjective" is applied to Slovenian vrstni pridevniki and Ukrainian ???????? ???????????. A more appropriate term would be relative adjective (Derzhanski and Kotsyba 2009). In Macedonian MTE v.4, the term "ordinal adjective" designates ordinal numerals, e.g., prv, vtor (eng. first, second) (note on MTE v4 adjectives). This category is thus ambiguous between "RelationalAdjective" and "OrdinalNumeral and Adjective"
SubClass Of
OrdinalNumeral G OrdinalNumeral Ordinal Numeral
Abstract Numeral/Type="ordinal". Ordinal (qualitative) numerals have an enumerating property, through which one can determine the consecutive position of an object in an ensemble of homogenous objects, e.g., Slovak prv? de?, druh? mesiac, tretia sekunda; Bulgarian ????? ???, ????? ?????, ????? ??????? /first day, second month, third second/. (Dimitrova et al. 2009) Ordinal numerals often have the same inflectional characteristics as adjectives (Macedonian MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
OrthographicalRepresentationOfNumeral G OrthographicalRepresentationOfNumeral Orthographical Representation Of Numeral
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
OtherInterjection G OtherInterjection Other Interjection
Abstract Interjection/Type="other" (Hungarian, as compared to Type="mood")
SubClass Of
owl:Thing G owl_Thing Thing (owl)
Namespace http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
Sub-Classes
Participle G Participle Participle
Abstract The concept Participle merges MTE v4 Verb/VForm="participle" and Adjective/Type="participle" that are used with partially overlapping extent:
Overlap with Adjective: Czech adjectival active and passive participles, e.g. "stoj?c?" (E. "standing") or "ud?lan?" (E. "performed" or "done", cf. Note 4 above) are classified as adjectives. (MTE v4)
Slovak: The 'past participle' in Slovak is used for expressing compound active past Tense and is encoded as: Type=p(articiple), Tense=pa(s)t. (MTE v4)
Slovak/Bulgarian: Vform=participle(p) corresponds to Slovak L-participle, in Bulgarian called just the participle and is used to form the past tense or the conditional. In Bulgarian, it also includes past participle (????????) /spoken/). (Dimitrova et al. 2009)
Macedonian: The passive participle is used in verbal forms with the auxiliary ima / nema (eng. to have, to have not). The verbal adjective, in case it is used out of this construction, is considered as separate lemma. (MTE v4)
Romanian participle and gerund mood permit an adjectival use. However, the adjectival use of gerund is extremely rare (o m?n? tremurnd? - a shaking hand). (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
ParticipleAdverb G ParticipleAdverb Participle Adverb
Abstract Adverb/Type="participle" is used in the Slovene MTE v4 specs, e.g., 'le?e' / lying. Slovenian adverbial participles are, however, not attested for Resian. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Particle G Particle Particle ParticleFormation Particle Formation Particle->ParticleFormation hasParticleFormation
Abstract Particle has an overlap with Adverb, see Adverb/Type="particle" as used for Hungarian and Romanian MTE v4. In Slovak MTE v4, however, Particles form a separate part of speech category as is customary in Slovak grammars. In the Slovak MTE tagset, we simplified our task enormously by resigning the classification attempts (which can be analysed ad nauseam to an arbitrary precision (?imkov?, 2004)), and all the articles have the same simple tag P. (Dimitrova et al. 2009)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
ParticleAdverb G ParticleAdverb Particle Adverb
Abstract Adverb/Type="particle" is used in the Romanian and Hungarian MTE v4 specs. In Romanian, the particle type covers those adverbs which can dislocate verbal compound forms (ex. Ea a tot c?ntat -- She has ever sung) or mark degrees (ex. circa (about), foarte (very), prea (too)). Such adverbs are cam, mai, prea, ?i, tot, foarte etc. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
ParticleFormation G ParticleFormation Particle Formation
Abstract Particle/Formation refers to the graphical components: simple, i.e. consisting of one word; compound, i.e. consisting of more than one word. (MTE v4)
SubClass Of
Sub-Classes
PartitiveCase G PartitiveCase Partitive Case
Abstract Case="partitive" (Estonian)
SubClass Of