Introductory material for Linguistic Linked Open Data

Linked Open Data, ontologies and RDF triple stores are all the buzz in these days' language resource community, and have been applied to any kind of language resource, ranging from corpora over dictionaries to terminology repositories and typological data bases. Still, all of this is barely taught at universities and described in designated text books.

Wanna know what this is all about? Here, we've collected some pointers to reference material, giving interested students, scholars or engineers some orientation and an introduction into the field.


The wikipedia gives a very basic introduction to LLOD that may serve as a first introduction.

Linguistic Linked Open Data (LLOD) cloud diagram

Converting dictionaries and other lexical resources: OntoLex/lemon

The primary format to represent machine-readable dictionaries in RDF and potentially as Linked Data is the Lexicon Model for Ontologies (lemon) developed by the W3C OntoLex Community Group.

Corpora and linguistic annotations: OLiA+NIF/OA/POWLA

Tutorial on Annotation Interoperability with Linked Open Data and the Ontologies of Linguistic Annotation (Christian Chiarcos, EUROLAN-2015 summer school, Sibiu, Romania) The representation of linguistic corpora in RDF is an area of active research. At the moment, we see a multitude of competing formats focusing on different types of applications, e.g.,